# SPSS for Psychologists (And Everybody Else)

## The interactive flash videos below will show you how to get more out of SPSS, including beginning to get to grips with some of the program's key features for handling statistics.

In this section we will introduce you to the world of statistical analysis using SPSS. Here, you will find a series of interactive tutorials designed to guide you through key statistical tests, essential for research in the Social Sciences. You do not need to be working on a computer with SPSS installed, but you will need an up-to-date version of Flash Player.

#### 1. Independent T-Tests

T-tests are used when you want to compare the performance of two groups, or conditions. For independent t-tests your groups will be made up of different participants or cases (e.g. a control and experimental group). In this way, you use independent t-tests when comparing betweengroups. This tutorial will interactively guide you through the way you run and interpret independent t-tests using SPSS.

#### 2. Paired T-Tests

Like independent t-tests, these tests are used when you want to compare the performance of two groups, or conditions. In this case, however, the same participants form both comparison groups, giving data for all experimental conditions. In this way, you use paired t-tests when comparingwithin group performance. This tutorial will interactively show you how to use SPSS to run these tests, and interpret the output produced.

#### 3. One-Way Independent ANOVA

A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used when you want to compare the means scores for two or more groups (or conditions). This test is used to analyse the results from a between-participants design (i.e. when participants are only assigned to one experimental condition) withone independent variable and one dependent variable. This tutorial will interactively show you how to use SPSS to run this test, and interpret the output produced.

#### 4. One-Way Repeated-Measures ANOVA

Like independent ANOVA, this test is used when you want to compare the performance of participants on more than two experimental conditions. In this case, however, the same participants provide data for all of the experimental conditions (i.e. in a within-participants design). This tutorial will interactively show you how to use SPSS to run this test, and interpret the output produced.

#### 5. Cronbach's Alpha

Cronbach’s alpha is a reliability test statistic that is frequently used to assess the internal consistency of a questionnaire or scale. It is most commonly when you want to establish the reliability of a scale that comprises multiple Likert-type items in order to measure a specific construct, behaviour or experience. This tutorial will show you how to produce Cronbach’s alpha, as well as exploring other helpful ways to determine the reliability of a measure.

#### 6. Correlation

Correlations are one of the simpler statistical tests that you will use when investigating the relationship between variables. This tutorial will interactively guide you through the way you run and interpret correlations on SPSS.

#### 7. Simple Linear Regression

Like correlation, this test allows you to explore the relationship between two continuous variables. However, simple linear regression also allows you to model this relationship, which allows you to make predictions about the values of one variable based on the other. This tutorial will show you how to use SPSS to run this analysis, and how to use the output to build a predictive model.

The videos above are also available in a downloadable .zip file for you to store on your own computer and view offline, along with data files to accompany some of the tutorials so that you can try them yourself. Click the link below to start the download.