Biology for Health

Applying the activities of daily living

by S.H. Cedar

Clinical practice questions

Below you will find a questions which will prompt you to apply your knowledge of biology, anatomy and physiology to clinical practice and to discover more.

Chapter 1 Maintaining a Safe Environment
  1. On the ward what are you asked to measure in patients?
    What does this tell you about a patient?
    What are you comparing it to?
  2. Sometimes samples are collected from patients.What samples can you list that are collected?
    What happens to these samples?
    What do the results tell you about the patient’s health?
  3. Cells (biopsies) are sometimes taken from patients. Why?
    What happens to the cells?
    What do the results reveal?
  4. What makes you feel safe?
    Does your health have an impact on how safe you feel?
Chapter 2 Working and Playing
  1. What observations have you made on patients?
    What have they told you about the patient’s health?
  2. How are some of the fluids in patients measured?
    What measurements have you made?
    What do they tell you?
  3. Have you been involved with a drug round?
    Can you identify any chemicals in the drugs?
    What were the drugs being used for?
  4. When a patient is given an Intravenous (IV) Infusion what is in the fluid?
    What rate (how fast) is the infusion delivered?
  5. In an Accident and Emergency (A & E) department, what are the first signs that are measured in a patient?
Chapter 3 Growing and Developing
  1. Why might some premature babies have growth or developmental problems?
  2. Does the development of a foetus rely solely on the mother?
  3. What could be some of the main contributory factors of learning difficulties?
  4. Can people with sickle cell anaemia be treated or cured? How?
  5. What are the treatments for Phenylketonuria (PKU)?
  6. If a patient has a parent with Huntington’s what would you do?
    What are the ethical issues that arise from this?
  7. If a couple have had three children with Duchene Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and want to have another child what is available for them to avoid having another child with DMD?
    What are the ethical issues that arise from this?
  8. What is gender re-alignment?
    What do you think causes the need for it?
  9. Are we ourselves due to our genes or due to our upbringing?
    What affect does your answer have on our health and lifestyle?
Chapter 4 Communicating
  1. What is type 2 diabetes? What are the factors that make a person susceptible to this condition? How is the condition managed?
  2. If too much insulin is administered to a patient with insulin-dependent diabetes what might be the consequences?
  3. A lack of the hormone ADH causes a disorder, diabetes insipidus.
    What would you expect would be the signs and symptoms of this disorder?
  4. What happens if you have a lack of Growth Hormone during

    a) Age 5-15?
    B) Age 45-55?
  5. Wernicke’s area of the brain is important in language.
    Damage to this area results in an inability to do what? (ie find words, comprehend language, produce words, hear words).
Chapter 5 Controlling and Repairing
  1. How does the skin contribute to the maintenance of body temperature?
  2. What is a pressure ulcer?
    How is it graded?
    What are the risk factors for developing a pressure ulcer?
  3. How can immobile patients maintain their temperatures?
  4. What are the main causes of pressure sores?
    How are pressure sores classified?
    What treatments are available?
  5. Explain the process by which cells are constantly lost and replaced in the epidermis
    Describe the protective functions of the skin in relation to potential physical and mechanical damage; chemical damage; biological damage; ultraviolet light; thermal damage
Chapter 6 Moving
  1. What are the main functions of the skeleton?
  2. Name four potential problems associated with long-term immobility
  3. After a fracture of the lower leg what should the patient do in terms of resting or using the injured leg? Why?
  4. If an adult patient had both arms in plaster, what effects would this have on their activities of daily living?
    What help would be available?
  5. What happens when an Achilles tendon ‘snaps’?
    What processes occur during repair?
Chapter 7 Breathing
  1. Why do we need a respiratory system?
  2. How would a tracheotomy affect breathing and gas exchange?
  3. What does it mean when food has ‘gone down the wrong way’?
    How are the airways protected during swallowing?
  4. How many patients are seen in your clinical placement with asthma each year?
    What effect does having asthma have on breathing?
    What treatments are available?
    What does each one do?
    When is each one used?
  5. What are the main causes of asthma in children?
    What percentage of them still have asthma as adults?
  6. What signs and symptoms are first seen in patients with lung cancers?
  7. What is the normal respiratory rate for an adult of 40 years old?
  8. Why might you be asked to monitor the respiration rate of an adult patient on morphine?
    What might happen to the respiration rate?
    What affect would this have on the patient?
  9. A patient’s tidal volume was found to be lower than normal. What factors could be affecting tidal volume?
Chapter 8 Transporting
  1. A patient with Thallasaemia receives blood transfusions.
    What are the problems or side-effects with this?
    What other medication is needed to counter side-effects?
  2. A patient is diagnosed as anaemic.
    What is anaemia?
    What can cause anaemia?
    What effect does it have on the patient’s lifestyle?
  3. Some people have damaged heart valves.
    What would be the effect of a damaged right atroventricular valve?
    What would be the effect of a damaged left atroventricular valve?
  4. Heart rate can be obtained listening to the heart beats per minute. In adults, heart rate is between 60-80 beats per minute. In the newborn it is about 100-160 beats per minute. Heart rate is usually measured at rest. Why?
  5. If the heart rate is 70 beats per minute, what should the pulse be? Why?
  6. Some children are born with a ‘hole in the heart’. This is a hole in the septum allowing the mixing of deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart with oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart.
    What affect might this have on an infant?
    How might their activities be limited?
  7. Is medication or surgery the main treatment for angina?
  8. What is atherosclerosis?
    What vital signs are measured to assess and diagnosis this condition?
    How can atherosclerosis lead to myocardial infarction?
  9. How does a myocardial infarction differ from an angina attack?
Chapter 9 Eating and Drinking
  1. What is a nutrient?
    What types of nutrients should we have in our diet?
    Which foods can we obtain these nutrients from?
  2. What may be the complications in diet and digestion of an immobile patient?
  3. Why might an elderly person who is prone to falls be reluctant to drink sufficiently?
  4. What is the effect long term antibiotic treatment on digestion?
  5. What is celiac disease?
    What affect does it have on the GI tract?
    How can it be treated?
  6. How are babies weaned onto solid foods? What affect would a poor / restricted diet have on their:

    a) Development?
    b) food choices in later life?
  7. How many cases of ‘food poisoning’ have you seen in your area of practice?
    What percentage of patients does this represent?
    What may be the main cause of this?
Chapter 10 Excreting
  1. What happens to glucose in the kidney tubule?
  2. What are the main components of urine?
    If sugar is found in urine is this normal? If not, what is it a sign of and why?
  3. How do you know when you need to urinate (micturate)?
    What causes that feeling?
  4. What are the main causes of a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
    What are the factors that contribute to having a UTI?
  5. What are the main treatments for chronic kidney damage?
Chapter 11 Washing and Dressing
  1. Why is a patient’s temperature taken very frequently after an operation?
  2. What is a pathogen? How does it differ from a microbe?
  3. What is the reason for immunisation and how do we become immunised against a pathogen?
  4. What are the problems associated with treating HIV/AIDS?
  5. If you have a viral infection as a child, why is it rare to get the same infection as an adult?
Chapter 12 Sleeping
  1. What is insomnia?
    What may be some of the main causes of insomnia?
    What treatments are available for people suffering from insomnia?
  2. Why would a TENS instrument used for some chronic pain not be advised for use in acute pain?
  3. What is circadian rhythm?
  4. How would shift work have an effect on you?
Chapter 13 Dying
  1. Do you think epidemiology is a useful discipline?
    Does it inform health care?
  2. What are the procedures that need to be followed in your clinical area when a patient dies?
  3. What are the provisions for obtaining organs for transplants in your clinical area?