Foundation Skills for Caring

Using student-centred learning

by Alan Glasper, Gill McEwing and Jim Richardson

Chapter summaries

Chapter 1: Fundamental Concepts for Skills

This chapter explores the basic concepts that underpin any healthcare procedure. Understanding these key points for practice will help you in all of your future clinical experiences.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), and you can use the links to other chapters to help build your knowledge of some of the areas covered.
Chapter 2: IT Skills
This chapter explores te importance of developing information management skills, how to make informed choices about meeting their ICT training needs, using IT to manage information flows, as well as covering the legal framework within which all data is handled (and how to ensure compliance).

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features an IT Skills pdf which includes summaries, case studies and useful information.
Chapter 3: Communication

This chapter emphasises and explores the importance of effective communication to contemporary healthcare, particularly within the context of multiprofessional working.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text) and a set PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session.
Chapter 4: Communicating with Adolescents

This chapter demonstrates the importance of communication with adolescents and suggests methods to achieve this effectively

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text) and a set PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session.
Chapter 5: Anxiety

This chapter underscores the importance of understanding anxiety in order to practice effectively. It will help you develop the requisite skills to confidently manage the feelings of your patients and clients within the healthcare setting.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text) and a set PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session.
Chapter 6: Sign Language

This chapter will give you the knowledge to engage with children when they do not use words to communicate.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), and you can use the links to other chapters to help build your understanding of the areas covered.
Chapter 7: Breaking Significant News

This chapter helps you identify strategies for successfully breaking significant news, and acquaints you with the key issues to be for when doing so.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page includes PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 8: Breakaway Skills

This chapter explains the skills required to of protect yourself in an aversive or confrontational situation.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, and a set of videos showing how the skills you’ve read about can be put into practice.
Chapter 9: Patient Hygiene

This chapter highlights the principles of helping patients meet their individual hygiene needs and explores many of the fundamental aspects of the professional’s role in assessing these needs.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features PowerPoints for use in group SCL sessions, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 10: Pressure Area Care

This chapter talks you through why pressure ulcers occur and what the healthcare professional can do to prevent them. It describes the skills required to assess skin for damage and grade skin damage, as well as offering assessment and treatment options for established pressure ulcers.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 11: Eye Care

This chapter aims to give you an understanding of the principles for safe and effective eye care.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page includes PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 12: Mouth Care

This chapter explores the rationale for providing mouth care, and outlines methods to ensure it is delivered safely and effectively.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page includes PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 13: Catheterisation and Catheter Care

This will help you to develop the skills needed in order too use a catheter correctly. It help you understand the reason for catheter use, and explains the factors that influence catheter choice.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page includes PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 14: Basic Foot Care and Managing Common Nail Pathologies

This chapter introduces you to the human foot: what is normal, what is abnormal and what may need specialist intervention, as well as how to undertake simple foot and toenail care.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page includes PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 15: Care of the Infant

Chapter 15 provides an overview of some of the core skills healthcare workers require when dealing with infants, in order to ensure high standards of hygiene and prevent the spread of infection.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), multiple choice questions, PowerPoints to supplement the printed text (suitable for a group presentation) and a set of videos showing how the skills you’ve read about can be put into practice.
Chapter 16: Vital Signs

This chapter will help you learn the techniques for taking and recording a patient’s temperature, pulse and respiration rate, as well as make decisions about the best place, time, and equipment for doing so.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page includes PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 17: Blood Pressure

This chapter gives you the skills to conduct blood pressure management with adult patients.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page includes PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 18: Pulse Oximetry

This chapter will help you understand pulse oximetry, which enables the healthcare professional to record a patient’s oxygen saturation level, and develop skills in this non-invasive technique.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 19: Blood Sugar Measurement (Using a Glucometer)

This chapter help you identify the patients or clients who may require blood sugar measurement, and explains how to perform it efficiently and safely with a glucometer.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 20: Neurological Assessment

This chapter explains the procedure for completing a neurological assessment, flags up difficulties that can arise when conducting an assessment, discusses the different approaches and tools used and explores factors underpinning this process.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 21: Pain Assessment: Child

This chapter examines the complex issue of the assessment of children and young adult’s pain and discusses how pain assessment influences pain management.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 22: Pain Assessment: Adult

This chapter examines the issue of pain assessment and the various myths and misconceptions attached to it. It explains how to undertake an assessment of someone’s pain and discusses the uses of various pain tools.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text) as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 23: Diabetic Foot Assessment

This chapter will show you how to carry out a diabetic foot assessment appropriately, including vascular, neurological and visual assessments of the foot.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 24: Assessing and Managing Hydration

This chapter uses two patient scenarios to explore the assessment and management of hydration in both the adult and the child.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 25: Intravenous Therapy

This chapter identifies key concepts associated with the safe administration of IV fluids.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 26: Enteral Feeding

This chapter introduces and discusses the notion of malnutrition and the ways in which health care professionals may manage it, as well as explaining the rationale and method behind enteral feeding.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 27: Preparation of Infant Feeds

This chapter promotes understanding, knowledge, skills and a positive learning attitude towards safe and effective infant bottle-feeding practice. It will help you select and prepare age-appropriate infant feeds as well as to give clear, evidence-based advice to mothers and other carers.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 28: Routes of Medication Administration

This chapter gives you the foundation knowledge required to safely administer medications to patients. It examines relevant anatomy, methods of calculating dosage, and the theory underpinning clinical skills, as well as underscoring the importance of aseptic technique in the prevention of infection.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 29: Patient-Controlled Analgesia

This chapter educates you about the concept of, and rationale behind, PCA. It describes the process and explores the different types of equipment used, as well as the relevant safety issues.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 30: Universal Precautions

This chapter explores the necessary precautionary measures set out in guidelines designed to protect healthcare workers from the risk of contamination with potentially infectious blood or body secretions. It highlights how universal precautions can work effectively as a means of protecting patients and staff, as well as of controlling infection.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 31: Wound Assessment

This chapter provides an introduction to accurate wound assessment and documentation. It defines and describes wounds, details the ways in which to take a focused history, explains the assessment and examination procedure and outlines the significance of any findings.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 32: Aseptic Technique and Wound Management

This chapter reviews the wound healing process and the principles of wound management.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), multiple choice questions to help you test your knowledge, PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 33: Central Venous Catheters

This chapter discusses the care and management of central venous lines in adults and children, including consideration of the different types of central venous catheters and the risks associated with their use and principles of care.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text) as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 34: Blood Transfusion

This chapter highlights the principles of blood transfusion and the necessary safety precautions underpinning this process.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 35: Oxygen Therapy and Suction Therapy

This chapter will give you a sound introduction to the skills required for the safe administration of oxygen and suctioning of the oropharynx and nasopharynx.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 36: Basic Life Support: Child

This chapter demonstrates care for a child requiring basic life support. It uses a structured approach to take you through the stages of recognising and responding to this critical situation.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 37: Basic Life Support: Adult

This chapter considers the emergency response to an adult requiring basic life support. It uses a structured approach to care to walk you through the different stages involved in recognising and responding to this critical situation.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 38: Clinical Holding for Care, Treatment or Interventions

This chapter discusses situations when there is a need to restrain clients in healthcare environments. It examines the legal, ethical and professional contexts to this and identifies the skills required to apply holding techniques.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features links to online resources (including those referenced in the printed text), PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 39: Orthopaedic Procedures

This chapter will give you an insight into some of the technical skills involved in caring for an adult orthopaedic patient. It includes areas such as plaster care, pin site care and traction.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page features PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.
Chapter 40: Last Offices

This chapter considers the practical aspects of dealing with the death of a patient.

There are a series of chapter links on the resources by chapter page to help you explore how the vital skills you have in this area may be applied to different settings.
Chapter 41: Specimen Collection

This chapter introduces you to the basics of specimen collection, including transportation and universal precautions.

The companion web material on the resources by chapter page includes PowerPoints that you can use in a group SCL session, as well as chapter links so you can see how the skills acquired here may be used in different settings.