Palgrave foundations series

by Bryan Greetham

Structures and analysis

Find free downloads of chapter structure overviews, additional analysis and a guide to structuring criticism.

Chapter structures

The following chapter structures clearly outline the arguments presented in each chapter of Philosophy. You can adapt them to suit your own purposes as you would if you were taking notes yourself. And, of course, you will find them very helpful if you have them by your side as you read each chapter in the book.

Chapter by chapter outlines and structures


Critical analysis is crucial as a philosopher. In Chapter 2 of Philosophy, the author worked through the stages involved in analysing the implications of concepts. To make the process even clearer you may find it helpful to read through a transcript of a tutorial in which the author gets a student to analyse the concept of ‘omissions’ in the following question.

As you read through the transcript you may find it helpful to have by your side the structure on page 21 of the book that outlines the stages.

The author has edited the tutorial in the extract, but if you want to read the whole transcript you can get a copy by contacting Bryony Ross ( at Palgrave Macmillan who will be pleased to send you one.

Structures for criticism

In Chapter 4 of Philosophy, the author shows you a method of criticising and evaluating empirical claims. This is a way of generating for yourself the sort of questions you need to ask in order to assess whether the claim does in fact stand up, or needs to be qualified, or should be abandoned altogether.

It usually helps us in using such a method to see exactly the stages we need to work through in a simple diagram or structure. Therefore, the author has drawn such a structure below along with the explanation of the method that you can find in the book. You will also find at the end ten statements, which you can use to practise the method and develop your skills.