Challenging Global Inequality

Development theory and practice in the 21st century

by Alastair Greig, David Hulme, and Mark Turner

Chapter by chapter resources - Chapter 3

Review Questions

  • Why have GDP and GNI (formerly GNP) per capita been considered good indicators for development?
  • What problems arise from using GNI or GDP as indicators for development?
  • What differences do social statistics reveal between wealthier and poorer countries?
  • How did nation-states come to be seen as natural units of comparative international analysis?
  • What problems emerge when using a collective noun to countries designated as poor?
  • What advantages are there in retaining such collective nouns?
  • Is it possible for poorer countries have a sense of collective identity?
  • What objective characteristics are often seen to constitute poorer countries?
  • What collective label best describes countries designed as poor?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of the labels listed in Box 3.3?
  • What assumptions are built into these labels?
  • What purposes do labels serve?
  • Is it possible to understand global issues without reverting to collective labels for nations?

Further Reading

Bauer, P. (1981), Equality, the Third World and Economic Delusion, Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

Hamilton, C. (2002), Growth Fetish, Sydney, Allen & Unwin.

Hulme, D. and M. Turner (1990), Sociology and Development: Theories, Policies and Practices, New York, Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Power, M. (2003), Rethinking Development Geographies, London, Routledge.

Smith, B. (2003), Understanding Third World Politics: Theories of Political Change and Development. Second Edition. Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills.

Waring, M. (1989), Counting for Nothing: What Men Value and What Women are Worth, Wellington, Allen & Unwin.


The World Bank’s World Development Reports can be accessed from the internet through the World Bank’s website:

The Non-Aligned Movement possesses a website:

The G20 are a group of developing countries with a special interest in agricultural trade reform:

The Australia Institute, directed by Dr Clive Hamilton, contains valuable information on the meaning of progress and the value of growth: