Chapter by chapter resources - Chapter 4
- What is progress?
- In what sense is progress a modern phenomenon?
- How was change viewed in pre-modern times and what conditions encouraged this outlook?
- What role did the development of science perform in altering understandings of social relations?
- In what sense were the Industrial and the French Revolutions catalysts for modernity?
- What elements of modernity were different classical sociologists exploring?
- Why have nineteenth century understandings of social change been described as ‘linear’?
- What criticisms have been levelled at linear models of development?
- Is scientific knowledge characterised more by certainty or scepticism?
- What were the costs and benefits of modernity, according to classical sociologists?
- Why might Gray have stated that ‘a belief in progress is the Prozac of the thinking classes’?
- In what sense was colonialism ‘progressive’?
- How did imperial powers justify colonialism?
- What were the costs of colonialism’?
- What forces led to the decline in European colonialism?
- Why might structuralists emphasize exogenous forces when analyzing colonialism and inequality?
- Is global inequality a consequence of structures that hold the world together as a cultural and economic unit, or are poorer nation simply at an earlier stage of development?
- Why did ‘the development project’ emerge as a key global challenge in the wake of the Second World War?
- Did the Bretton Woods conference signify a fairer future for global trade? Did its structure promote development?
Further ReadingCoser, L. (1971), Masters of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context, New York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Hayek, F.A. (1944), The Road to Serfdom, Sydney, Dymock’s Book Arcade.
Hobsbawm, E. (1994), Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century 1914-1991, London, Michael Joseph.
Kumar, K. (1993), From Post-Industrial to Post-Modern Society: New Theories of the Contemporary World, Oxford, Blackwell.
Rist, G. (1999), The History of Development: From Western Origins to Global Faith, London, Zed Books.
Roxborough, I. (1979), Theories of Underdevelopment, London, Macmillan.
WebsitesA good introduction to the idea of progress is presented in this Teodor Shanin article:http://www.msses.ru/shanin/idea.html
A comprehensive site on Marx and Marxism is the Marxists Internet Archive: http://www.marxists.org/
Dr Rick Kuhn also has an excellent website on Marxism:http://www.anu.edu.au/polsci/marx/
Keith Windschuttle’s The Sydney Line website contains some articles defending the legacy of British colonialism:http://www.sydneyline.com/
Dinesh D’Sousa’s article, ‘Two Cheers for Colonialism’ is also available on the internet:http://chronicle.com/free/v48/i35/35b00701.htm
The homepage of the International Monetary Fund:www.imf.org
The homepage of the World Bank: http:// www.worldbank.org