Challenging Global Inequality

Development theory and practice in the 21st century

by Alastair Greig, David Hulme, and Mark Turner

Chapter by chapter resources - Chapter 9

Review Questions

  • Over the past two hundred years, what political and philosophical perspectives have questioned modernity?
  • According to neoliberals, why are free markets good for the environment?
  • Is there a relationship between poverty and environmental degradation?
  • How does the MDG logic relate to neoliberal understandings of the relationship between growth and environmental sustainability?
  • Does wealth in natural resources guarantee a healthy economy?
  • Is ecofeminism ‘essentialist?
  • Has gender mainstreaming made significant inroads into changing development practices, or does it merely draw women into male-oriented projects?
  • How did modernization theory deal with questions of gender??
  • Does empirical evidence point to a narrowing gender gap throughout the world?
  • Has globalization marginalized women in paid work?
  • What reasons explain the rise of postdevelopment thinking in the 1980s and 1990s?
  • How useful is the postdevelopment emphasis on particular circumstances and contexts rather than generalization?
  • What are the methodological implications of postdevelopment analysis?
  • According to postdevelopmentalists, what do all modern developmental discourses hold in common, despite their apparent disagreements?
  • Has development discourse principally been a means for the powerful to manage those labelled the Third World?
  • What is meant by the claim that ‘language is always implicated in power relations’?
  • What are the key criticisms levelled against postdevelopment arguments?
  • Does postdevelopmentalism paint an overly pessimistic portrayal of the fruits of the Enlightenment and progress?
  • What lay at the basis of Inglehart’s materialist/postmaterialist divide?
  • How do new social movements challenge mainstream ways of doing politics?
  • What innovative techniques do the anti-globalization movements employ?
  • Why did Bendana describe the 1999 battle of Seattle as the ‘restart of a positive history’?
  • Is the anti-globalization movement really against globalization?
  • In practice, is the anti-globalization movement helping the poor?

Further Reading

Escobar, A. (1995), Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

George, S. (2004), Another World Is Possible If …, London Verso Books.

Kothari, U. and M. Minogue eds (2002), Development Theory and Practice: Critical Perspectives, Basingstoke, Palgrave.

Meadows, D. et al. (2005), Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update, London, Earthscan.

Rahnema, M. and Bawtree, V. comps. (1997) The Postdevelopment Reader, London, Zed Books. Scott, Catherine V. Gender and Development: Rethinking Modernization and Dependency theory (Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder, 1995)


The website of the World Social Forum:

The website for the International Institute for Sustainable Development:

Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN) deals with gender and trade issues:

The Institute for Food and Development Policy (Food First) website:

Links between the environment and globalization can be found at this site:

UN Secretary General Kofi Annan’s address to the World Summit on sustainable development can be found at this webpage:

A speech by Amartya Sen on globalization can be found on this webpage:

The text of a speech by AlejandroBendana on global social movements is available here:

Dr Ted Trainer’s website, The Simpler Way, contains a wealth of useful information on globalization and environmental issues:

The UN Global Compact website;