Challenging Global Inequality

Development theory and practice in the 21st century

by Alastair Greig, David Hulme, and Mark Turner

Timeline

  • 1492 Columbus reaches the Americas
  • 1519 Cortez captures Tenochtitlan
  • 1565 Spanish colonize Philippines
  • 1648 The Treaty of Westphalia
  • 18 th century The Enlightenment
  • 1776 American declaration of independence
  • 1776 Publication of Adam Smith’s An Inquiry into the Causes and Nature ofThe Wealth of Nations
  • 1780-1820 The beginning of the British industrial revolution
  • 1789 French revolution
  • 1800-1820 Struggles for independence in Latin America
  • 1848 Karl Marx and Frederic Engels’ The Communist Manifesto published
  • 1866-1869 Meiji Restoration in Japan
  • 1878 Congress of Berlin
  • 1885 Founding of the Indian National Congress (Congress Party)
  • 1898 Spanish-American War
  • 1899-1901 Boxer rebellion in China
  • 1904-5 Russo-Japanese War
  • 1910 Mexican revolution
  • 1911 Chinese revolution ends Qing Dynasty
  • 1914-1918 First World War
  • 1917 Russian February and October revolutions
  • 1918-9 Spanish influenza pandemic
  • 1919 Treaty of Versailles
  • 1918-1921 Russian Civil War
  • 1923 Establishment of the Turkish state
  • 1929-30 Forced collectivization of agriculture in Russia
  • 1929 Beginning of the Great Depression
  • 1933 Nazis assume power in Germany
  • 1935-1936 Abyssinian crisis and annexation by Italy
  • 1936-1939 Spanish Civil War
  • 1937 Anastasio Somoza Garcia assumes power in Nicaragua
  • 1939-1945 Second World War
  • 1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbour. USA enters war
  • 1942 British and Allies defeated by Japanese at Singapore
  • 1944 Bretton Woods conference and establishment of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) and IMF
  • 1944 Arevalo assumes power in Guatemala
  • 1944 Publication of Hayek’s Road to Serfdom
  • 1945 United Nations established
  • 1945-1954 Vietnamese independence war against French colonialism
  • 1946 Philippines independence
  • 1947 Indian independence and partition into separate countries of India and Pakistan
  • 1947 Cominform established
  • 1948 Yugoslavia expelled from Cominform
  • 1948 UN Declaration of Human Rights proclaimed
  • 1949 Indonesian independence
  • 1949 NATO established
  • 1949 Communist victory in China and establishment of PRC
  • 1950-1970 The long boom for the capitalist economies
  • 1952 Free Officers coup overthrows king in Egypt
  • 1953 Death of Soviet leader Josef Stalin
  • 1953 CIA and MI6 help overthrow Iran’s Prime Minister Mossadegh and return the Shah to power
  • 1954-1969 54 former colonies gain independence
  • 1954-1962 Algerian war of independence
  • 1954 Arbenz overthrown in CIA-backed coup in Guatemala
  • 1954 Geneva accords split Vietnam into Communist north and western-backed South
  • 1955 Bandung (Asian-African) conference
  • 1956 Sudan gains independence
  • 1956 Khrushchev’s ‘secret speech’ denouncing Stalin
  • 1956 Hungarian uprising against Soviet communism
  • 1956 Suez Crisis
  • 1957 Francois Duvalier (Papa Doc) assumes power in Haiti
  • 1957 Ghana becomes independent
  • 1958 Beginning of Great Leap Forward in China
  • 1959 Cuban revolution
  • 1960 The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto by W.W. Rostow published
  • 1961 UN declares the 1960s as the ‘decade of development’
  • 1961 Erection of the Berlin Wall
  • 1962 Cuban missile crisis
  • 1962 Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago achieve independent status
  • 1962 Uganda becomes independent
  • 1963 Kenya becomes independent
  • 1964 US President Johnson’s ‘War on Poverty’
  • 1964 Beginning of military dictatorship in Brazil, lasting until 1985
  • 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident leading to US troop build up and Vietnam war
  • 1964 Malawi becomes independent
  • 1965 Mobuto Sese Seko assumes power in Zaire
  • 1967 Publication of Andre Gunder Frank’s Development and Underdevelopment in Latin America
  • 1966-1969 Chinese Cultural Revolution
  • Late 1960s Unraveling of the Bretton Woods system
  • 1968 Prague spring crushed by Soviet troops
  • 1970 Fiji achieves independence
  • 1970 Allende coalition socialist government assumes power in Chile
  • 1970 UN General Assembly resolution recommends that wealthy countries contribute 0.7 per cent of GNP to ODA
  • 1971 Bangladesh (East Pakistan) independence from Pakistan
  • 1973 OPEC raises oil prices
  • 1973 Allende overthrown in military coup led by General Pinochet
  • 1973 Non-Alignment Movement calls for a New International Economic Order
  • 1975 Independence of Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia
  • 1975 Fall of Saigon and Communist victory in Vietnam
  • 1975 Independence of Papua New Guinea
  • 1975 First World Conference on Women, Mexico City
  • 1976 Death of Mao Zedong, followed by economic liberalization in Communist China
  • 1979 Second OPEC oil price rise
  • 1979 Sandinista revolution in Nicaragua overthrows Anastasio Somoza Debayle
  • 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran
  • 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
  • 1980 Brandt report released on North-South relations
  • 1981 Beginning of global concern over HIV/AIDS
  • 1983 US invades Granada
  • 1983 Mexico and other indebted countries default on debts
  • 1985 Third World Conference on Women, Nairobi, Kenya
  • 1986 Jean-Claude Duvalier (Baby Doc) overthrown in Haiti
  • 1986 Marcos overthrown in Philippines
  • 1986-1994 GATT Uruguay Round
  • 1984-1985 Famine in Ethiopia
  • 1989 First APEC meeting
  • 1989 US invades Panama
  • 1989 Fall of the Berlin War
  • 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and Beijing massacre
  • 1989 Publication of Francis Fukayama’s article ‘The End of History’
  • 1989 Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan
  • 1990 Sandinistas lose election in Nicaragua to right-wing coalition
  • 1990 National League for Democracy wins elections in Burma but denied office by military
  • 1990 World Summit for Children
  • 1990-1991 Gulf War
  • 1991 End of the Soviet Union
  • 1992 European Union formed
  • 1992 Rio Earth Summit
  • 1993 Human Development Index first used by the UNDP
  • 1993 Publication of Samuel Huntington’s article ‘The Clash of Civilizations’
  • 1995 World Trade Organization founded
  • 1995 Oxfam International founded
  • 1995 Fifth World Conference of Women, Beijing
  • 1995 Publication of Arturo Escobar’s Encountering Development
  • 1996 HIPC initiative begins
  • 1997 Mobuto overthrown in Zaire
  • 1997-9 Asian financial crisis
  • 1999 Demonstrations against a WTO meeting lead to the ‘Battle of Seattle’
  • 2000 Millennium Development Goals agreed to by world leaders
  • 2001 Terrorist attacks on US soil
  • 2001 US coalition invades Afghanistan
  • 2001 WTO Doha Development round begins
  • 2002 World Social Forum meets at Porte Allegre, Brazil
  • 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg, South Africa
  • 2003 US-led coalition invades Iraq
  • 2003 Darfur conflict reaches international attention
  • 2005 Make Poverty History campaign launched