by Rod Hague and Martin Harrop

References

This list combines the academic references from the 2007, 2010 and 2013 editions and arranges them by chapter. It provides a searchable, downloadable and more detailed bibliography of the specific topics covered in the book.


Chapter One: Political Concepts

  • Anderson, B. (1983) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso).
  • Anderson, B. (1998) The Spectre of Comparisons: Nationalism, South-East Asia and the World (London and New York: Verso).
  • Arendt, H. (1970) On Violence (London: Allen Lane).
  • Aristotle (1962 edn) The Politics, trans. T. Sinclair (Harmondsworth and Baltimore, MD: Penguin).
  • Bachrach, P. and Baratz, M. (1962) ‘The Two Faces of Power’, American Political Science Review (56) 941–52.
  • Bell, D. (1960) The End of Ideology? On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the 1950s (New York: Free Press).
  • Bill, J. and Springborg, R. (1999) Politics in the Middle East, 5th edn (New York: Longman).
  • Brooker, P. (2009) Non-Democratic Regimes: Theory, Government and Politics, 2nd edn(Basingstoke: Macmillan and New York: St Martin’s Press).
  • Budge, I. (2006) ‘Identifying Dimensions and Locating Parties: Methodological and Conceptual Problems’ in Handbook of Party Politics, ed. R. Katz and W. Crotty (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage) pp. 422-34.
  • Calhoun, C. (1997) Nationalism (Buckingham: Open University Press).
  • Cheung, G. (2005) ‘The Chinese Diaspora as a Virtual Nation: Interactive Roles between Economic and Social Capital’, Political Studies (52) 664-84.
  • Coase, R. (1960) ‘The Problem of Social Cost’, Journal of Law and Economics (3) 1-44.
  • Crick, B. (2000) In Defence of Politics, 5th edn (Harmondsworth: Penguin).
  • Crick, B. (2004) ‘Politics as a Form of Rule: Politics, Citizenship and Democracy’, in What Is Politics? ed. A. Leftwich (Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity) pp. 67-85.
  • Dahl, R. (1957) ‘The Concept of Power’, Behavioral Science (2) 201-15.
  • Dahl, R. (1998) On Democracy (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press).
  • Dahl, R. (1999) ‘Can International Organizations Be Democratic?’, in Democracy’s Edges, ed. I. Shapiro and C. Hacker-Cordon (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press) pp. 19-36.
  • Dahl, R., Shapiro, I. and Cheibub, J. (eds) (2003) The Democracy Sourcebook (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
  • Delanty, G. and Kumar, K. (eds) (2006) The Sage Handbook of Nations and Nationalism (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage).
  • Eagleton, T. (1991) Ideology: An Introduction (London: Verso).
  • Easton, D. (1965) A Framework for Political Analysis (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall).
  • Easton, D. (1965) A Systems Analysis of Political Life (New York: Wiley).
  • Eley, G. and Suny, R. (1996) ‘From the Moment of Social History to the Work of Cultural Representation’, in Becoming National: A Reader, ed. G. Eley and R. Suny (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 3-37.
  • Esman, M. (1996) ‘Diasporas and International Relations’, in Ethnicity, ed. J. Hutchinson and A. Smith (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 316-20.
  • Finer, S. (1970) Comparative Government (Harmondsworth and New York: Penguin).
  • Fukuyama, F. (1992) The End of History and the Last Man (New York: Free Press).
  • Gagnon, A. G. and Tully, J. (eds) (2001) Multinational Democracies (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Gallie, W. (1956) ‘Essentially Contested Concepts’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society (56) 157-97.
  • Gellner, E. (1983) Nations and Nationalism (Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell).
  • Gerth, H. and Mills, C. Wright (1948) From Max Weber (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul).
  • Goldsmith, J. and Wu, T. (2006) Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Goodin, R. and Klingemann, H.-D. (1996) ‘Politics Science: The Discipline’ in A New Handbook of Political Science, ed. R. Goodin and H.-D. Klingemann (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 3-49.
  • Hamilton, R. (1987) ‘The Elements of the Concept of Ideology’, Political Studies (35) 18-38.
  • Hammerstad, A. (2011) ‘Population Movement and Its Impact on World Politics’, in Issues in 21st Century World Politics, ed. M. Beeson and N. Bisley (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 238–50.
  • Hansen, R. and Weil, P. (eds) (2002) Dual Nationality, Social Rights and Federal Citizenship in the U.S. and Europe (New York: Berghahn).
  • Haugaard, M. (ed.) (2002) Power: A Reader (Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press).
  • Hay, C. (2002) Political Analysis: A Critical Introduction (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave).
  • Hay, C. (2007) Why We Hate Politics (Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity).
  • Hay, C., Lister, M. and Marsh, D. (2005) The State: Theories and Issues (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Heater, D. (1999) What is Citizenship? (Cambridge: Polity).
  • Held, D. et al. (2005) Debating Globalization (Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity).
  • Heywood, A. (2012) Political Ideologies: An Introduction, 5th edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Hinsley, F. (1986) Sovereignty (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Hobbes, T. (1651) [1968 edn] Leviathan, ed. M. Oakeshott (Toronto: Crowell-Collier).
  • Hoffman, J. (1998) Sovereignty (Buckingham: Open University Press).
  • Hooghe, L. and Marks, G. (2001) Multilevel Governance and European Integration (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield).
  • Huntington, S. (1991) The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century (Norman, OK and London: University of Oklahoma Press).
  • Huntington, S. (2004) Who Are We? America’s Great Debate (New York: Free Press).
  • Jackson, R. (2009) Sovereignty: The Evolution of an Idea (Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity).
  • Jordan, A., Wurzel, R. and Zito, A. (2005) ‘The Rise of “New” Policy Instruments in Comparative Perspective: Has Governance Eclipsed Government?’ Political Studies (53) 477-96.
  • Karatnycky, A. (2006) Civic Power and Electoral Politics (Washington, DC: Freedom House) Accessed February 19, 2006.
  • Kjær, A. (2004) Governance (Cambridge: Polity).
  • Kooiman, J. (2003) Governing as Governance (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage).
  • Krasner, S. (1999) Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy (Princeton, NJ and Chichester: Princeton University Press).
  • Kymlicka, W. (1995) Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Langman, L. (2006) ‘The Social Psychology of Nationalism’, in The Sage Handbook of Nations and Nationalism, ed. G. Delanty and K. Kumar (London: Sage) pp. 71-83.
  • Lasswell, H. (1936) Politics: Who Gets What, When, How? (New York: McGraw Hill).
  • Laver, M. (1983) Invitation to Politics (Oxford: Martin Robertson).
  • Le Cheminant, W. and Parrish, J. (eds) (2011) Manipulating Democracy: Democratic Theory, Political Psychology and Mass Media (New York: Routledge).
  • Leftwich, A. (ed.) (2004) What Is Politics? (Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity).
  • Levene, M. (2005) Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State: Volume 1, The Meaning of Genocide (London and New York: I. B. Taurus).
  • Levene, M. (2005) Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State: Volume I1, The Rise of the West and the Coming of Genocide (London and New York: I. B. Taurus).
  • Levitsky, S. and Way, L. (2010) Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes After the Cold War (New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Lie, J. (2004) Modern Peoplehood (Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press).
  • Linz, J. (1975) [2000 edn] Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner).
  • Lipset, S. (1960) [1983 edn] Political Man (New York: Basic Books).
  • Locke, J. (1690) [1965 edn] Two Treatises of Government (New York: New American Library).
  • Lukes, S. (1974) [2005 edn] Power: A Radical View, 2nd edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Lukes, S. (ed.) (1986) Power (Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell).
  • Mackenzie, W. (1958) Free Elections: An Elementary Textbook (London: Allen & Unwin).
  • Mair, P. (2007) ‘Left-Right Orientations’ in The Oxford Handbook of Political Behaviour, ed. R. Dalton and H-.D. Klingemann (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press), pp. 206-22.
  • Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1845/6) The German Ideology, http://www.marxists.org, accessed 9 August 2009.
  • Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1848) [1967] The Communist Manifesto, intro. G. Stedman Jones (Harmondsworth: Penguin).
  • Mill, J. (1861) [1991 edn] ‘Considerations on Representative Government’, in Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Vol. 19, ed. J. O’Grady and B. Robson (Toronto: University of Toronto Press and London: Routledge) pp. 371-577.
  • Miller, D. (1991) ‘Politics’, in Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought, ed. V. Bogdanor (Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell) pp. 390-1.
  • Morgenthau, H. (1966) ‘The Purpose of Political Science’, in A Design for Political Science: Scope, Objectives and Methods, ed. J. Charlesworth (Philadelphia, PA: American Academy of Political and Social Science) pp. 63-79.
  • Murrin, J. (1987) ‘A Roof without Walls: The Dilemma of American National Identity’, in Beyond Confederation: Origins of the Constitution and American National Identity, ed. R. Beeman, S. Botein and E. Carter II (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press) pp. 333-48.
  • Nicholson, P. (1990) ‘Politics as the Exercise of Force’ in What is Politics? ed. A. Leftwich (Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity) pp. 41-52.
  • Nimni, E. (2006) Multicultural Nationalism (London and New York: Routledge).
  • O’Donnell, G. (1994) ‘Delegative Democracy’, Journal of Democracy (5) 55-69.
  • Oakes, L. (1997) Prophetic Charisma: The Psychology of Revolutionary Religious Personalities (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press).
  • Ottaway, M. (2003) Democracy Challenged: The Rise of Semi-Authoritarianism (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace).
  • Parsons, T. (1967) ‘On the Concept of Political Power’, in Sociological Theory and Modern Society, ed. T. Parsons (New York and London: Free Press) pp. 286-99.
  • Political Studies Review (2006) ‘Review Symposium on Steven Lukes’ Power: A Radical View (4) 115-75.
  • Rhodes, R. (1996) ‘The New Governance: Governing without Government’, Political Studies (44) 652-67.
  • Rosenau, J. (1992) ‘Governance, Order and Change in World Politics’, in Governance without Government: Order and Change in World Politics, ed. J. Rosenau and E. O. Czempiel (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 3-6.
  • Russell, B. (1938) Power: A New Social Analysis (London: Allen & Unwin).
  • Schattschneider, E. (1960) The Semisovereign People (New York: Holt, Reinhart, Winston).
  • Shapiro, I. (2006) ‘On the Second Edition of Lukes’ Third Face’, Political Studies Review (4) 146-55.
  • Shively, W. (2002) Power and Choice: An Introduction to Political Science, 8th edn (New York and London: McGraw-Hill).
  • Smith, A. (1998) Nationalism and Modernism: A Critical Survey of Recent Theories of Nations and Nationalism (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Smith, A. (1999) Myths and Memories of the Nation (Oxford and New York: Oxford Unversity Press).
  • Smith, A. (2009) Ethno-symbolism and Nationalism: A Cultural Approach (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Smith, M. (2000) Power and the State (London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Smooha, S. (2002) ‘The Model of Ethnic Democracy’, Nations and Nationalism (8) 475-503.
  • Sørensen, G. (2004) The Transformation of the State: Beyond the Myth of Retreat (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Stoker, G. (2006) Why Politics Matters: Making Democracy Work (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan)
  • van Creveld, M. (1999) The Rise and Decline of the State (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Van den Berghe, P. (1981) The Ethnic Phenomenon (New York: Elsevier).Watt, E. (1982) Authority (London: Croom Helm).
  • Watt, E. (1982) Authority (London: Croom Helm).
  • Weber, M. (1922) [1957 edn] The Theory of Economic and Social Organization (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press).
  • Weber, M. (1923) [1946 edn] ‘The Social Psychology of the World Religions’, in From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, ed. and trans. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 267-301.
  • Wilde, R. (2007) Territorial Administration by International Organizations (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • World Bank (1997) World Development Report: The State in a Changing World (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Zakaria, F. (2003) The Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad (New York and London: Norton).

Chapter Two: The State

  • Adams, F. (2003) Deepening Democracy: Global Governance and Political Reform in Latin America (New York: Praeger).
  • Armitage, D. (2005) ‘The Contagion of Sovereignty: Declarations of Independence since 1776’, South African Historical Journal (52) 1-18.
  • Batt, J. (2003) ‘Defining Central and Eastern Europe’ in Developments in Central and East European Politics 3, ed. S. White S., J. Batt and P. Lewis (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 3-22.
  • Börzel, T. and Sedelmeieir, U. (2006) ‘The EU Dimension in European Politics’ in Developments in European Politics, ed. P. Heywood et al. (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 54-70.
  • Chesterman, S., Ignatieff, M. and Thakur, R. (eds) (2005) Making States Work: State Failure and the Crisis of Governance (Tokyo and New York: United Nations University Press)
  • Cini, M. (ed.) (2006) European Union Politics, 2nd edn (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Clapham, C. (2003) ‘The Challenge to the State in a Globalized World’ in State Failure, Collapse and Reconstruction, ed. J. Milliken (Malden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell) pp. 25-44.
  • Clark S. (1995) State and Status: The Rise of the State and Aristocratic Power in Western Europe (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press).
  • Commonwealth Secretariat (1997) A Future for Small States: Overcoming Vulnerability (London: Commonwealth Secretariat).
  • Creveld, M. van (1999) The Rise and Decline of the State (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Dahl, R. (1999) ‘Can International Organizations Be Democratic?’, in Democracy’s Edges, ed. I. Shapiro and C. Hacker-Cordon (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press) pp. 19-36.
  • Dahl, R. and Tufte, E. (1973) Size and Democracy (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press).
  • Davidson, B. (1992) The Black Man’s Burden: Africa and the Curse of the Nation-State (Oxford and Harare: James Currey).
  • Derbyshire, J. and Derbyshire, L. (1999) Political Systems of the World (Oxford: Helicon).
  • Diamond, L. (1992) ‘Economic Development and Democracy Reconsidered’, in Re-examining Democracy: Essays in Honor of Seymour Martin Lipset, ed. G. Marks and L. Diamond (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage) pp. 93–131.
  • Dyson, K. (1980) The State Tradition in Western Europe: A Study of an Idea and Institution (Oxford: Martin Robertson).
  • Fernando J. and Heston A. (1997) ‘NGOs between States, Markets and Civil Society’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences (554) 8-19.
  • Finer, S. (1997) The History of Government from the Earliest Times, 3 vols (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Fukuyama, F. (2004) State Building: Governance and World Order in the Twenty-First Century (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).
  • Goldstone, J., Kaufmann, E. and Toft, M. (eds) (2012) Political Demography: How Population Changes Are Reshaping International Security and National Politics (New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Guehenno, J. M. (1995) The End of the Nation-State (Min­neapolis, MN and London: University of Minnesota Press).
  • Hartz, L. (1955) The Liberal Tradition in America (New York: Harcourt, Brace).
  • Herbst, J. (2004) ‘Let Them Fail: State Failure in Theory and Practice’ in When States Fail: Causes and Consequences, ed. R. Rotberg (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press), pp. 302-18.
  • Hirst, P. and Thompson, G. (1999) Globalization in Question: The International Economy and the Possibilities of Governance, 2nd edn (Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell).
  • Huntington, S. (2004) Who Are We? America’s Great Debate (New York: Free Press).
  • Hyden, G. (2006) African Politics in Comparative Perspective (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Ignatieff, M. (2002) ‘Intervention and State Failure’, Dissent (49) 114-23.
  • Jackson, R. (1990) Quasi-states: Sovereignty, International Relations and the Third World (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Jordan, A., Wurzel, R. and Zito, A. (2005) ‘The Rise of “New” Policy Instruments in Comparative Perspective: Has Governance Eclipsed Government?’ Political Studies (53) 477-96.
  • Kaldor, M. (2007) Human Security (Cambridge: Polity).
  • Kegley, C. and Blanton, S. (2009) World Politics: Trends and Transformations, 12th edn (Belmont: CA: Wadsworth).
  • Keitetsi, C. (2004) Child Soldier (London: Souvenir Press).
  • Khadiagala, G. (1995) ‘State Collapse and Reconstruction in Uganda’ in Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority, ed. W. Zartman (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner) pp. 33-47.
  • Lange, M. (2009) Lineages of Despotism and Development: British Colonialism and State Power (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
  • Latouche, S. (1996) The Westernization of the World (Cambridge and Cambridge, MA: Polity).
  • Lechner, F. and Boli, J. (eds) (2003) The Globalization Reader (Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell).
  • Lelieveldt, H. and Princen, S. (2011) The Politics of the European Union (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Levy, J. (2006) ‘The State Also Rises: The Roots of Contemporary State Activism’, in The State After Statism: New State Activities in the Age of Liberalization, ed. J. Levy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press) pp. 1–30.
  • Locke, J. [1690] (1970) Two Treatises of Government, ed. P. Laslett (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Mann, M. (1997) ‘Has Globalization Ended the Rise and Fall of the Nation-State?’, Review of International Political Economy (4) 472-96.
  • Manor, J. (2006) World Bank Aid That Works: Successful Development in Fragile States (Washington, DC: World Bank).
  • Mayall, J. (1996) The New Interventionism, 1993-1994: United Nations Experience in Cambodia, Former Yugoslavia and Somalia (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • McCormick, J. (2008) Understanding the European Union: A Concise Introduction, 4th edn (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • McCreery, D. (2002) ‘State and Society in Nineteenth Century Goiás’, in Studies in the Formation of the Nation State in Latin America, ed. J. Dunkerley (London: Institute of Latin American Studies) pp. 133-60.
  • McKay, D. (2009) American Politics and Society, 7th edn (Chichester: Wiley).
  • Melleuish, G. (2002) ‘The State in World History: Perspectives and Problems’, Australian Journal of Politics and History (48) 322-35.
  • Migdal, J. (2001) State in Society: Studying how States and Societies Transform and Constitute One Another (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Milliken, J. (ed.) (2003) State Failure, Collapse and Reconstruction (Malden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell).
  • Mueller, J. and Stewart, M. (2011) Terror, Security, and Money: Balancing the Risks, Benefits, and Costs and Homeland Security (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Nugent, N. (2010) The Government and Politics of the European Union, 7th edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • O’Harrow, R. (2005) No Place to Hide (New York: Free Press).
  • Ocitti, T. (2006) Press, Politics and Public Policy in Uganda: The Role of Journalism in Democratization (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen).
  • Ohmae, K. (1995) The End of the Nation State: The Rise of Regional Economies (New York: Free Press and London: HarperCollins).
  • Opello, W. and Rosow, S. (2004) The Nation-State and Global Order: A Historical Introduction to Contemporary Politics, 2nd edn (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner).
  • Osiander, A. (2001) ‘Sovereignty, International Relations and the Westphalian Myth’, International Organization (55) 251-89.
  • Owen, R. (2004) State, Power and Politics in the Middle East, 3rd edn (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Paul, T. (ed.) (2004) The Nation-State in Question (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
  • Reno, W. (2003) ‘The Politics of Insurgency in Collapsing States’ in State Failure, Collapse and Reconstruction, ed. J. Milliken (Malden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell) pp. 83-104.
  • Robertson, R. (1992) Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture (London: Sage).
  • Rotberg, R. (ed.) (2004) When States Fail: Causes and Consequences (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
  • Saward, M. (2006) ‘The State and Civil Liberties in the Post-9/11 World’ in Developments in British Politics 8, ed. P. Dunleavy et al. (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 212-30.
  • Schlesinger, Jr, A., (1998) The Disuniting of America, revised edn (New York: Norton).
  • Scholte, J. (2005) Globalization: A Critical Introduction, 2nd edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Skinner, Q. (1978) The Foundations of Modern Political Thought, Vol. 1 (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Slaughter, A..-M. (2003) ‘Governing the Global Economy through Government Networks’ in The Global Transformations Reader, 2nd edn, eds. D. Held and A. McGrew (Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity) pp. 189-203.
  • Slaughter, A.-M . (2004) A New World Order (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
  • Smooha, S. (2002) ‘The Model of Ethnic Democracy’, Nations and Nationalism (8) 475-503.
  • Sørensen, G. (2004) The Transformation of the State: Beyond the Myth of Retreat (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Spruyt, H. (2005) Ending Empire: Contested Sovereignty and Territorial Partition (Cornell, NY: Cornell University Press).
  • Steinmo, S. (2003) ‘The Evolution of Policy Ideas: Tax Policy in the Twentieth Century’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations (5) 206-36.
  • Strange, S. (1994) States and Markets (London and New York: Pinter).
  • Tilly, C. (1975) ‘Reflections on the History of European State-Making’, in The Formation of National States in Western Europe, ed. C. Tilly (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press) pp. 3-83.
  • Tripp, A. (2000) Women and Politics in Uganda (London: James Currey).
  • Vartiainen, J. (2004) ‘Scandinavian Capitalism at the Turn of the Century’ in Where are National Capitalisms Now? ed. J. Perraton and B. Clift (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 111-32.
  • Waters, M. (2000) Globalization, 2nd edn (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Weiss, L. (1998) The Myth of the Powerless State: Governing the Economy in a Global Era (Cambridge: Polity).
  • Weiss, T. and Gordenker, C. (1996) ‘Pluralizing Global Governance’, in Nongovernmental Organizations, the United Nations and Global Governance, ed. T. Weiss and C. Gordenker (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner) pp. 17-50.
  • Winham, G. (2005) ‘The Evolution of the Global Trade Regime’ in Global Political Economy, ed. J. Ravenhill (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 87-115.
  • Zartman, W. (ed.) (1995) Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner).
  • Zartman, W. (1995) ‘Posing the Problem of State Collapse’ in Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority, ed. W. Zartman (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner) pp. 1-14.
  • Zartman, W. (1995c) ‘Putting Things Back Together’, in Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority, ed. W. Zartman (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner) pp. 267-74.

Chapter Three: Democracy

  • Adeney, K. and Wyatt, A. (2010) Contemporary India (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Alonso, S., Keane, J. and Merkel, W. (eds) (2011) The Future of Representative Democracy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Apter, D. (1965) The Politics of Modernization (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
  • Arblaster, A. (2002) Democracy, 3rd edn (Buckingham and Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press).
  • Aristotle (1962 edn) The Politics, trans. T. Sinclair (Harmondsworth and Baltimore, MD: Penguin).
  • Baer, M. (1993) ‘Mexico’s Second Revolution: Pathways to Liberalization’, in Political and Economic Liberalization in Mexico: At a Critical Juncture? ed. R. Roett (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner) pp. 51-68.
  • Bardes, B., Shelley, M. and Schmidt, S. (2006) American Government and Politics: The Essentials, 2006-2007 edn (Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth).
  • Beetham, D. (2004) ‘Freedom as the Foundation’, Journal of Democracy (15) 61-75.
  • Boix, C. (2003) Democracy and Redistribution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Boix, C. (2011) ‘Democracy, Development and the International System’, American Political Science Review (105) 809–28.
  • Borón, A. (1998) ‘Faulty Democracies? A Reflection on the Capitalist “Fault Lines”’, in Fault Lines of Democracy in Post-Transition Latin America, ed. F. Agüero and J. Stark (Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami) pp. 41-66.
  • Bourchier, D. (2006) Illiberal Democracy in Indonesia (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Brooks, T. (2008) ‘Is Plato’s Political Philosophy Anti-Democratic?’, in Anti-Democratic Thought, ed. E. Kofmel (Exeter: Imprint Academic) pp. 17–33.
  • Camp, R. (2006) Politics in Mexico: The Democratic Consolidation, 5th edn. (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Carothers, T. (2002) ‘The End of the Transition Paradigm’, Journal of Democracy (13) 5-21.
  • Case, W. (1996) ‘Can the “Halfway House” Stand? Semidemocracy and Elite Theory in Three Southeast Asian Countries’, Comparative Politics (28) 437-64.
  • Cohen, J. (1997) ‘Deliberation and Democratic Legitimacy’, in Deliberative Democracy: Essays on Reason and Politics, ed. J. Bohman and W. Rehg (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) pp. 67-92.
  • Corbridge, S., Harriss, J. and Jeffrey, C. (2012) India Today: Economy, Politics and Society (Cambridge: Polity).
  • Crandall, R., Paz, G. and Roett, R. (eds) (2005) Mexico’s Democracy at Work: Political and Electoral Dynamics (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner).
  • Crouch, H. (1996) Government and Society in Malaysia (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).
  • Dahl, R. (1989) Democracy and its Critics (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press).
  • Dahl, R. (1998) On Democracy (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press).
  • Dahl, R. (2001) How Democratic is the American Constitution? (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press).
  • Dahl, R., Shapiro, I. and Cheibub, J. (eds) (2003) The Democracy Sourcebook (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
  • Dalton, R., Scarrow, S. and Cain, B. (2004) ‘Advanced Democracies and the New Politics’, Journal of Democracy (15) 124-38.
  • Desfor Edles, L. (1998) Symbol and Ritual in the New Spain (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Edmonds-Poli, E. and Shirk, D. (2008) Contemporary Mexican Politics (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield).
  • Finer, S. (1997) The History of Government from the Earliest Times, 3 vols (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Finley, M. (1985) Democracy Ancient and Modern (London: Hogarth Press).
  • Fontana, B. Nederman, C. and Remer, G. (eds) (2004) Historical Perspectives on Rhetoric and Democracy (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania University Press).
  • Greenspan, A. (1994) ‘Discussion’ in The Future of Central Banking: The Tercentenary Symposium of the Bank of England, ed. F. Capie et al. (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 252-61.
  • Grugel, J. (2002) Democratization: A Critical Introduction (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Habermas, J. (1975) Legitimation Crisis (Boston, MA: Beacon Press).
  • Habermas, J. (1978) Knowledge and Human Interests, 2nd edn, trans. J. Shapiro (London: Heinemann Education).
  • Haerpfer, C., Bernhagen, P., Inglehart, R. and Welzel, C. (eds) (2009) Democratization (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Hansen, M. (1991) The Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes (Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell).
  • Held, D. (2006) Models of Democracy, 3rd edn (Cambridge: Polity).
  • Herbst, J. (2001) ‘Political Liberalization in Africa after 10 Years,’ Comparative Politics (33) 357-75.
  • Huntington, S. (1991) The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century (Norman, OK and London: University of Oklahoma Press).
  • Inglehart, R. (1997) Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic and Social Change in 43 Societies (Princeton, NJ and London: Princeton University Press).
  • Jayal, N. (2007) ‘Situating Indian Democracy’, in Democracy in India, ed. N. Jayal (New Delhi: Oxford University Press) pp. 1–50.
  • Karatnycky, A. (2006) Civic Power and Electoral Politics (Washington, DC: Freedom House).
  • Keane, J. (2009) The Life and Death of Democracy (London: Simon & Schuster).
  • Korosteleva, E. (2004) ‘The Quality of Democracy in Belarus and Ukraine’, Journal of Communist and Transition Politics (20) 122-42.
  • Lawson, C. (2004) ‘Fox’s Mexico at Mid-term’, Journal of Democracy (15) 139-53.
  • Leib, E. (2004) Deliberative Democracy in America: A Proposal for a Popular Branch of Government (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania University Press).
  • Linz, J. and Stepan, A. (eds) (1978) The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes (Baltimore, MD and London: Johns Hopkins University Press).
  • Linz, J. and Stepan, A. (1996) Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press).
  • Lipset, S. (1959) ‘Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy’, American Political Science Review (53) 69–105.
  • Lipset, S. (1960) [1983 edn] Political Man (New York: Basic Books).
  • Lyon, D. (2003) Surveillance after September 11 (Cambridge and Cambridge, MA: Polity).
  • Mandelbaum, M. (2007) Democracy’s Good Name: The Rise and Risks of the World’s Most Popular Form of Government (New York: PublicAffairs).
  • Marks, G. and Diamond, L. (eds) (1992) Re-examining Democracy: Essays in Honour of Seymour Martin Lipset (Thousand Oaks, CA and London: Sage).
  • Meehan, J. (ed.) (1995) Feminists Read Habermas: Gendering the Subject of Discourse (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Mitra, S. (2011) Politics in India: Structure, Process and Policy (Abingdon: Routledge).
  • Mitra, S. (2012) ‘Politics in India’ in Comparative Politics Today, 10th edn, ed. G. Bingham, Powell, R. Dalton and K. Strøm (Glenview, IL: Pearson) pp. 568–615).Mutz, D. (2006) Hearing the Other Side: Deliberative Versus Participatory Democracy (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Morlino, L. (2012) Changes for Democracy: Actors, Structures, Processes (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • O’Donnell, G. (1994) ‘Delegative Democracy’, Journal of Democracy (5) 55-69.
  • O’Donnell, G. and Schmitter, P. (1986) Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press).
  • O’Donnell, G., Schmitter, P. and Whitehead, L. (eds) (1986) Transitions from Authoritarian Rule (Baltimore, MD and London: Johns Hopkins University Press).
  • O’Flynn, I. (2006) Deliberative Democracy and Divided Societies (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).
  • O’Neill, S. (2009) ‘The Real War in Mexico: How Democracy Can Defeat the Drug Cartels’, Foreign Affairs (88) 63-77.
  • Ottaway, M. (2003) Democracy Challenged: The Rise of Semi-Authoritarianism (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace).
  • Paine, T. (1791/2) [1984 edn] Rights of Man (Harmondsworth: Penguin).
  • Parkinson, J. (2006) Deliberating in the Real World: Problems of Legitimacy in Deliberative Democracy (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Pateman, C. (1970) Participation and Democratic Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Pateman, C. (2012) ‘Participatory Democracy Revisited’, Perspectives on Politics (10) 7–19.
  • Pehe, J. (2004) ‘Consolidating Free Government in the New European Union’, Journal of Democracy (15) 36-47.
  • Pridham, G. (ed.) (1995) Transitions to Democracy (Brookfield, VT and Aldershot: Dartmouth).
  • Przeworski, A. (1991) Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Rosanvallon, P. (2008) Counter-Democracy: Politics in an Age of Distrust (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Rousseau, J.J. (1762) [1913 edn] The Social Contract (London: Dent and New York: Dutton).
  • Rubio, L. and Purcell, S. (eds) (2004) Mexico under Fox (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner).
  • Schedler, A. (2005) ‘From Electoral Authoritarianism to Democratic Consolidation’, in Mexico’s Democracy at Work: Political and Electoral Dynamics, ed. R.Crandall, G. Paz, G. and R. Roett (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner) pp. 9-38.
  • Schedler, A. (ed.) (2006) Electoral Authoritarianism: The Dynamics of Unfree Competition (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner).
  • Schumpeter, J. (1943) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (London: Allen & Unwin).
  • Schmitter, P. (2011) ‘Diagnosing and Designing Democracy in Europe’, in The Future of Representative Democracy, ed. S. Alonso, J. Keane and W. Merkel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) pp. 191–211.
  • Shirk, D. (2005) Mexico’s New Politics: The PAN and Democratic Change (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner).
  • Stepan, A., Linz, J. and Yadav, Y. (2011) Crafting State-Nations: India and Other Multinational Democracies (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press).
  • Svolik, M. (2008) ‘Authoritarian Reversals and Democratic Consolidation’, American Political Science Review (102) 153–68.
  • Vanhanen, T. (1997) Prospects of Democracy: A Study of 172 Countries (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Vibert, F. (2007) The Rise of the Unelected: Democracy and the New Separation of Powers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Wilson, A. (2006) Ukraine’s Orange Revolution (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).
  • Zakaria, F. (2003) The Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad (New York and London: Norton).

Chapter Four: Authoritarian Rule

  • Agüero, F. (2004) ‘Authoritarian Legacies: The Military’s Role’, in Authoritarian Legacies and Democracies in Latin America and Southern Europe, ed. K. Hite and P. Cesarini (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press) pp. 233-62.
  • Alavi, N. (2005) We Are Iran: The Persian Blogs (New York: Soft Skull Press).
  • Bellin, E. (2005) ‘Coercive Institutions and Coercive Leaders’, in Authoritarianism in the Middle East, ed. M. Posuney and M. Angrsit (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner) pp. 21-42.
  • Breslin, S. (2004) ‘Capitalism with Chinese Characteristics: The Public, the Private and the International’, Working Paper No. 104, Asia Research Centre (Perth: Murdoch University) Accessed March 20, 2006.
  • Brodsgaard, K. and Yongnian, Z. (eds) (2006) The Chinese Communist Party in Reform (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Brooker, P. (2009) Non-Democratic Regimes: Theory, Government and Politics, 2nd edn(Basingstoke: Macmillan, and New York: St Martin’s Press).
  • Brown, A. (ed.) (2004) The Demise of Marxism-Leninism in Russia (London and New York: Palgrave).
  • Carriûn, J. (ed.) (2006) The Fujimori Legacy: The Rise of Electoral Authoritarianism in Peru (University Park, PA: Penn State University Press).
  • Chebabi, H. (2001) ‘The Political Regime of the Islamic Republic of Iran’, Government and Opposition (39) 48-70.
  • Chebabi, H. and Linz, J. (eds) (1998) Sultanistic Regimes (Baltimore, MD and London: Johns Hopkins University Press).
  • Cottey, A. et al. (eds) (2003) Democratic Control of the Military in Post-Communist Europe (Basingstoke: Palgrave).
  • Dickson, B. (2007) ‘Integrating Wealth and Power in China: The Communist Party’s Embrace of the Market Sector’, China Quarterly (192) 827-54.
  • Dittmer, L. and Liu, G. (eds) (2006) China’s Deep Reform: Domestic Politics in Transition (Lanham, MD and Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield).
  • Elster, J., Offe, C. and Preuss, U. (1998) Institutional Design in Post-Communist Societies: Rebuilding the Ship at Sea (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Ezrow, N. and Frantz, E. (2011) Dictators and Dictatorships: Understanding Authoritarian Regimes and Their Leaders (New York: Continuum).
  • Farcau, B. (1994) The Coup: Tactics in the Seizure of Power (Westport, CT: Praeger).
  • Feaver, P. (1999) ‘Civil-Military Relations’, Annual Review of Political Science (2) 211-41.
  • Finer, S. (1962) [1988 edn] The Man on Horseback: The Role of the Military in Politics (Boulder, CO: Westview).
  • Friedrich, C. (1970) ‘The Failure of a One-Party System: Hitler Germany’, in Authoritarian Politics in Modern Society: The Dynamics of Established One-Party Systems, ed. S. Huntington and C. Moore (New York and London: Basic Books) pp. 239-60.
  • Friedrich, C. and Brzezinski, Z. (1965) Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy (New York: Praeger).
  • Gasster, M. (1976) ‘The Rise of Chinese Communism’, in Comparative Communism: The Soviet, Chinese and Yugoslav Models, ed. G. Bertsch and T. Ganschow (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman) pp. 97-120.
  • Gheissari, A. (ed.) (2009) Contemporary Iran: Economy, Society, Politics (New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Girard, P. (2006) Paradise Lost: Haiti’s Tumultuous Journey from Pearl of the Caribbean to Third World Hotspot (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave).
  • Gleason, A. (1995) Totalitarianism: The Inner History of the Cold War (New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Gong, T. (2002) ‘Dangerous Collusion: Corruption as a Collective Venture in Contemporary China’, Communist and Postsocialist Studies (35) 85-103.
  • Griffin, R. (ed.) (2004) Fascism as a Totalitarian Movement (London: Frank Cass).
  • Hadenius, A. and Teorell, J. (2007) ‘Pathways from Authoritarianism’, Journal of Democracy (18) 143-56.
  • Hafez, M. (2005) ‘A Tragedy of Errors: Thwarted Democratization and Islamist Violence in Algeria’, in Democratic Development and Political Terrorism: The Global Perspective, ed. W. Crotty (Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press) pp. 301-31.
  • Harding, N. (ed.) (1984) The State in Socialist Society (London: Macmillan).
  • Hartlyn, J. (1998) ‘The Trujillo Regime in the Dominican Republic’, in Sultanistic Regimes, ed. H. Chehabi and J. Linz (Baltimore, MD and London: Johns Hopkins University Press) pp. 85-112.
  • Herb, M. (1999) All in the Family: Absolutism, Revolution and Democracy in the Middle Eastern Monarchies (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press).
  • Herb, M. (2005) ‘Princes, Parliaments, and the Prospects for Democracy in the Gulf’, in Authoritarianism in the Middle East, ed. M. Posusney and M. Angrist (Lynne Rienner: Boulder, CO and Oxford) pp. 169-92.
  • Hite, K. and Cesarini, P. (eds) (2004) Authoritarian Legacies and Democracies in Latin America and Southern Europe (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press).
  • Howe, H. (2001) Ambiguous Order: Military Forces in African States (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner).
  • Huntington, S. (1970) ‘Social and Institutional Dynamics of One-Party Systems’, in Authoritarian Politics in Modern Society: The Dynamics of Established One-Party Systems, ed. S. Huntington and C. Moore (New York and London: Basic Books) pp. 3-47.
  • Hutton, W. (2006) The Writing on the Wall: China and the West in the 21st Century (Boston, MA: Little, Brown).
  • Ignazi, P. (2006) Extreme Right Parties in Western Europe (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Joseph, W. (ed.) (2010) Politics in China: An Introduction (New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Kershaw, I. (2000) The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation, 4th edn (London: Arnold).
  • Kershaw, I. and Lewin, M. (eds) (1997) Stalinism and Nazism: Dictatorships in Comparison (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Keshavarzian, A. (2005) ‘Contestation without Democracy: Elite Fragmentation in Iran’, in Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Regimes and Resistance, ed. M. Posusney and M. Angrist (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner) pp. 63-90.
  • Keynes, J. (1923) [1971 edn] Tract on Monetary Reform (London: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • King, S. (2007) ‘Sustaining Authoritarianism in the Middle East and North Africa’, Political Science Quarterly (122) 433-60.
  • Lee, S. (2000) European Dictatorships, 1918-45, 2nd edn (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Lesch, A. (2004) ‘Politics in Egypt’, in Comparative Politics Today: A World View, 8th edn, ed. G. Almond et al. (New York: Longman) pp. 581-632.
  • Levitsky, S. and Way, L. (2010) Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes After the Cold War (New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Linz, J. (1975) [2000 edn] Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner).
  • Madhukar, S. and Nagarjuna, B. (2011) ‘Inflation and Growth Rates in India and China: A Perspective of Transition Economies’, IPEDR (4) 489–92.
  • Magyar, K. (1992) ‘Military Intervention and Withdrawal in Africa: Problems and Perspectives’, in From Military to Civilian Rule, ed. C. Danopoulos (London and New York: Routledge) pp. 230-48.
  • Martin, V. (2003) Creating an Islamic State: Khomeini and the Making of a New Iran (London: L. B. Taurus).
  • McGregor, R. (2010) The Party: The Secret World of China’s Communist Rulers (London: Allen Lane).
  • Melvin, N. (2000) Uzbekistan: Transition to Authoritarianism on the Silk Road (Reading: Harwood).
  • Mussolini, B. (1932) [1973 edn] ‘The Doctrine of Fascism’, in Italian Fascism: From Pareto to Gentile, ed. A. Lyttleton (London: Cape) pp. 37-67.
  • Owen, J. (2002) ‘The Foreign Imposition of Domestic Institutions’, International Organization (50) 375-409.
  • Palmer, M. (2003) Breaking the Real Axis of Evil: How to Oust the World’s Last Dictators by 2025 (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield).
  • Park, H. (1976) ‘Changes in Chinese Communist Ideology’, in Comparative Communism: The Soviet, Chinese and Yugoslav Models, ed. G. Bertsch and T. Ganschow (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman) pp. 144-50.
  • Perlmutter, A. (1981) Modern Authoritarianism (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).
  • Perlmutter, A. (1997) Making the World Safe for Democracy: A Century of Wilsonianism and its Totalitarian Challenges (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press).
  • Posusney, M. (2005) ‘The Middle East’s Democracy Deficit in Comparative Perspective’, in Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Regimes and Resistance, ed. M. Posusney and M. Angrist (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner) pp. 1-20.
  • Posusney, M. and Angrist, M. (eds) (2005) Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Regimes and Resistance (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner).
  • Rich, R. (2001) ‘Bringing Democracy into International Law’, Journal of Democracy (12)20-34.
  • Safire, W. (1993) Safire’s New Political Dictionary (New York: Random House).
  • Saich, A. (2011) Governance and Politics of China, 3rd edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave).
  • Seznec, J. F. (2003) ‘Stirrings in Saudi Arabia’, in Islam and Democracy in the Middle East, ed. L. Diamond, M. Plattner and D. Brumberg (Baltimore, MD and London: Johns Hopkins University Press) pp. 76-83.
  • Silva, P. (ed.) (2001) The Soldier and the State in South America (London: Palgrave).
  • Wang, X. (2002) ‘The Postcommunist Personality: The Spectre of China’s Market Reforms’, The China Journal (47) 1-17.
  • Way, L. (2011) ‘Comparing the Arab Revolts: The Lessons of 1989’, Journal of Democracy (22) 17–27
  • Weber, M. (1921-22) [1978 edn] Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, ed. G. Roth and C. Wittich (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press).

Chapter Five: Theoretical Approaches

  • Allison, G. (1971) Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis (Boston, MA: Little Brown).
  • Allison, G. and Zelikow, P. (1999) Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis (New York: Longman)
  • Anderson, C. (2009) ‘Nested Citizens: Macropolitics and Microbehaviour’ in Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture and Structure, 2nd edn, ed. M. Lichbach and A. Zuckerman, (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 314-32.
  • Barber, J. (1972) The Presidential Character: Predicting Performance in the White House (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall).
  • Bevir, M. and Rhodes, R. (2002) ‘Interpretive Theory’, in Theory and Methods in Political Science, 2nd edn, ed. D. Marsh and G. Stoker (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 131-52.
  • Burnham, W. (1982) ‘The Constitution, Capitalism and the Need for Rationalized Regulation’, in How Capitalistic Is the Constitution? ed. R. Goldwyn and W. Schambra (Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute) pp. 72-87.
  • Bryce, J. (1921) Modern Democracies, Vol. 2 (New York: Macmillan).
  • Calhoun, J. (1851) [2007 edn] Disquisition on Government, ed. H. Cheek (South Bend, IN: St Augustine’s Press).
  • Clayton, C. and Gillman, H. (1999) ‘Beyond Judicial Decision Making’, in The Supreme Court in American Politics: New Institutionalist Approaches, ed. C. Clayton and H. Gillman (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas) pp. 1–12.
  • Dalton, R. and Klingemann, H.-D. (eds) (2007) The Oxford Handbook of Political Behaviour (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Downs, A. (1957) An Economic Theory of Democracy (New York: Harper).
  • Duch, R. and Stevenson, R. (2008) The Economic Vote: How Political and Economic Institutions Condition Electoral Results (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Elster, J. (1989) Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Eulau, H. (1963) The Behavioral Persuasion in Politics (New York: Random House).
  • Evans, P., Rueschemeyer, D. and Skocpol, T. (eds) (1985) Bringing The State Back In (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Farr, J. (1995) ‘Remembering the Revolution: Behavioralism in American Politics Science’ in Political Science in History: Research Programs and Political Traditions, ed. J. Farr et al. (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 198-224.
  • Finnemore, M. (1996) National Interests in International Society (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).
  • Geertz, C. (1973) [1993 edn] ‘Thick Description: Toward an Interpretative Theory of Culture’, in Interpretation of Cultures, ed. C. Geertz (London: Fontana) pp. 1-33.
  • de Goede, M. (2005) Virtue, Fortune and Faith: A Genealogy of Finance (Minneapolis, MA: University of Minnesota Press).
  • Green, D. (2002) ‘Constructivist Comparative Politics: Foundations and Framework’, in Constructivism and Comparative Politics, ed. D. Green (Armonk, NY and London: M.E. Sharpe) pp. 3-59.
  • Green, D. (ed.) (2002) Constructivism and Comparative Politics (Armonk, NY and London: M.E. Sharpe).
  • Green, D. and Shapiro, I. (1994) Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory: A Critique of Applications in Political Science (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).
  • Hay, C. (2002) Political Analysis: A Critical Introduction (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave).
  • Hindmoor, A. (2010) ‘Rational Choice’ in Theory and Methods in Political Science, 3rd edn, ed. D. Marsh and G. Stoker (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan)
  • Huntington, S. (1968) Political Order in Changing Societies (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press).
  • Hull, A. (1999) ‘Comparative Political Science: An Inventory and Assessment since the 1980s’, PS (32) 117-24.
  • Janis, I. (1982) Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes, 2nd edn (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin).
  • Johnson, J. (2001) ‘Path Contingency in Postcommunist Transformations’, Comparative Politics (33) 253-74.
  • Keynes, J. (1936) The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (London: Macmillan).
  • Lakatos, I. (1978) The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes: Philosophical Papers Vol. 1, ed. J. Worrall and G. Curie (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Lichbach, M. (2009) ‘Thinking and Working in the Midst of Things: Discovery, Explanation and Evidence in Comparative Politics’ in Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture and Structure, 2nd edn, ed. M. Lichbach and A. Zuckerman (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 18-71.
  • Lichbach, M. and Zuckerman, A. (eds) (2009) Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture and Structure, 2nd edn (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Lieberman, E. (2005) ‘Nested Analysis as Mixed-Method Strategy for Comparative Research’, American Political Science Review (99) 435-52.
  • Lipset, S. (1990) Continental Divide: The Values and Institutions of the United States and Canada (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Mahoney, J. (2003) ‘Knowledge Accumulation in Comparative Historical Research: The Case of Democracy and Authoritarianism’ in Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences, ed. J. Mahoney and D. Rueschmeyer (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 337-72.
  • Mahoney, J. and Rueschmeyer D. (eds) (2003) Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Mahoney, J. and Thelen, K. (2010) ‘A Theory of Gradual Institutional Change’ in Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency and Power, ed. J. Mahoney and K. Thelen (New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 1–37.
  • Mair, P. (1996) ‘Comparative Politics: An Overview’, in A New Handbook of Political Science, ed. R. Goodin and H. Klingemann (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 309-35.
  • Mair, P. (2009) ‘Left-Right Orientations’ in The Oxford Handbook of Political Behavior, ed. R. Dalton and H.-D. Klingemann (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 206-22.
  • March, D. and Olsen, J. (1984) ‘The New Institutionalism: Organizational Factors in Political Life’, American Political Science Review (78) 778-49.
  • Marsh, D. and Stoker, G. (eds) (2010) Theory and Methods in Political Science, 3rd edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1845/6) The German Ideology, http://www.marxists.org.
  • Moore, Barrington, Jr (1966) Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World (Boston, MA: Beacon Press).
  • Munro, W. (1925) The Governments of Europe (New York: Macmillan).
  • Onuf, N. (1989) World of Our Making: Rules and Rule in Social Theory and International Relations (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press).
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  • Parkin, F. (2002) Max Weber, revised edn (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Parsons, C. (2010) ‘Constructivism’ in Theory and Methods in Political Science, 3rd edn, ed. D. Marsh and G. Stoker (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 80-98.
  • Peters, B. Guy (1998) Comparative Politics: Theory and Methods (London: Macmillan and New York University Press).
  • Peters, B. Guy (1999) Institutional Theory in Political Science: The ‘New Institutionalism’ (London and New York: Pinter).
  • Peters, B. Guy (2011) ‘Approaches in Comparative Politics’, in Comparative Politics, 2nd edn, ed. D. Caramani (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 37–49.
  • Pierson, P. (2004) Politics in Time: History, Institutions and Social Analysis (Princeton, NJ and Woodstock: Princeton University Press).
  • Przeworski, A. (1991) Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Przeworski, A. and Teune, H. (1970) The Logic of Comparative Inquiry (New York: Wiley).
  • Rhodes, R. (1995) ‘The Institutional Approach’, in Theory and Methods in Political Science, ed. D. Marsh and G. Stoker (Basingstoke: Macmillan) pp. 42-57.
  • Rhodes, R., Binder, S. and Rockman, B. (eds) (2006) The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Ridley, F. (1975) The Study of Government: Political Science and Administration (London: Allen & Unwin).
  • Riker, W. (1990) ‘Political Science and Rational Choice’ in Perspectives on Positive Political Economy, ed. J. Alt and K. Shepsle (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 182-97.
  • Riker, W. and Ordeshook, P. (1973) Introduction to Positive Political Theory (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall).
  • Rose, R. (1991) ‘Comparing Forms of Comparative Analysis’, Political Studies (39) 446-62.
  • Rothstein, B. (1996) ‘Political Institutions: An Overview’ in A New Handbook of Political Science,ed. R Goodin and H.-D. Klingemann (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 205-22.
  • Rothstein, B. (2002) ‘Sweden: Social Capital in the Social Democratic State’, in Democracies in Flux: The Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society, ed. R. Putnam (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 289-332.
  • Rothwell, D. (1986) ‘Risk-Taking and Polarization in Small Group Communication’, Communication Education (35) 182-7.
  • Sait, E. (1938) Political Institutions: A Preface (New York: Appleton-Century).
  • Sartori, G. (1976) Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Sartori, G. (1991) ‘Comparing and Miscomparing’, Journal of Theoretical Politics (3) 243-58.
  • Shepsle, K. (2006) ‘Rational Choice Institutionalism’ in The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions, ed. R. Rhodes, S. Binder and B. Rockman (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 23-38.
  • Scott, W. (2007) Institutions and Organizations: Ideas and Interests, 3rd edn (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage).
  • Segal, J. and Spaeth, H. (2002) The Supreme Court and the Attitudinal Model Revisited (New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Skocpol, T. (1979) States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia and China (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Skocpol, T. (2003) ‘Doubly Engaged Social Science: The Promise of Comparative Historical Analysis’ in Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences, ed. J. Mahoney and D. Rueschmeyer (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 407-28.
  • Tocqueville, A. de (1835) [1966 edn] Democracy in America (New York: Vintage Books).
  • Tsebelis, G. (2002) Veto Players: How Political Institutions Work (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
  • Valentino, B. (2004) Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the 20th Century (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).
  • Wahlke, J. et al. (1962) The Legislative System (New York: Wiley).
  • Wendt, A. (1999) Social Theory of International Politics (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Yanow, D. and Schwartz-Shea, P. (eds) (2006) Interpretation and Method:Empirical Research Methods and the Interpretive Turn (Armonk, New York and London: M.E. Sharpe).
  • Zijderveld, A. (2000) The Institutional Imperative: The Interface of Institutions and Networks (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press).

Chapter Six: Political Culture

  • Almond, G. (1983) ‘Communism and Political Culture Theory’, Comparative Politics (15) 127-38.
  • Almond, G. (1993) ‘The Study of Political Culture’, in Political Culture in Germany, ed.D.Berg-Schlosser and R. Rytlewski (New York: St. Martin’s Press) pp. 13-26.
  • Almond, G. and Verba, S. (1963) The Civic Culture (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
  • Almond, G. and Verba, S. (eds) (1980) The Civic Culture Revisited (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
  • Andeweg, R. and Irwin, G. (2009) Governance and Politics of the Netherlands, 3rd edn(Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave).
  • Barber, B. (1995) Jihad vs McWorld (New York: Ballantine Books).
  • Barry, B. (1988) Sociologists, Economists, and Democracy (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press).
  • Berg-Schlosser, D. and Rytlewski, R. (eds) (1993) Political Culture in Germany (New York: St. Martin’s Press).
  • Brewer, P., Aday, S. and Gross, K. (2003) ‘Rallies All Round: The Dynamics of System Support’, in Framing Terrorism: The News Media, the Government and the Public, ed. P. Norris, M. Kern and M. Just (London and NY: Routledge) pp. 229-54.
  • Chabal, P. and Daloz, J. (2006) Culture Troubles: Politics and the Interpretation of Meaning (London: Hurst).
  • Conradt, D. (2008) The German Polity, 9th edn (New York: Longman).
  • Crothers, L. and Lockhart, C. (eds) (2002) Culture and Politics: A Reader (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Dalton, R. (2008) Citizen Politics: Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies, 5th edn (Washington, DC: CQ Press).
  • Deschouwer, K. (2009) The Politics of Belgium: Governing a Divided Society (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Eckstein, H. (1998) ‘Russia and the Conditions of Democracy’, in Can Democracy Take Root in Post-Soviet Russia? Explorations in State-Society Relations, ed. H. Eckstein et al. (Lanham, MD and Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield) pp. 349-81.
  • Engels, F. (1844) [1999 edn] The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, ed. D. McLellan (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Farnen, R. and Meloen, J. (eds) (2000) Democracy, Authoritarianism and Education (Basingstoke: Palgrave).
  • Fuller, G. (2002) ‘The Future for Political Islam’, Foreign Affairs (81) 48-60.
  • George, A. (1969) ‘The Operational Code: A Neglected Approach to the Study of Political Leaders and Decision-making’, International Studies Quarterly (13) 190-222.
  • Gitelman, Z. (2005) ‘The Democratization of Russia in Comparative Perspective’, in Developments in Russian Politics 6, ed. S. White, Z. Gitelman and R. Sakwa (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 241-56.
  • Green, S., Hough, D. and Miskimmon, A. (2011) The Politics of the New Germany, 2nd edn (Abingdon: Routledge).
  • Gregorian, V. (2004) Islam: A Mosaic, Not a Monolith (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press).
  • Hancock, M. and Krisch, H. (2008) Politics in Germany (Washington, DC: CQ Press).
  • Helms, D. (ed.) (2000) Institutions and Institutional Change in the Federal Republic of Germany (Basingstoke: Palgrave).
  • Hetherington, M. (2004) Why Trust Matters: Declining Political Trust and the Demise of Political Liberalism (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
  • Huntington, S. (1993) ‘Clash of Civilizations’, Foreign Affairs (72) 22-49.
  • Huntington, S. (1996) The Clash of Civilizations and the Making of World Order (New York: Simon & Schuster).
  • Inglehart, R. (1971) ‘The Silent Revolution in Europe: Intergenerational Change in Post-Industrial Societies’, American Political Science Review (65) 991-1017.
  • Inglehart, R. (1990) Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
  • Inglehart, R. (1997) Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic and Social Change in 43 Societies (Princeton, NJ and London: Princeton University Press).
  • Inglehart, R. (1999) ‘Postmodernization Erodes Respect for Authority, but Increases Support for Democracy’, in Critical Citizens: Global Support for Democratic Governance, ed. P. Norris (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 236-56.
  • Inglehart, R. and Welzel, C. (2005) Modernization, Cultural Change and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Inoguchi, T. (2002) ‘Broadening the Basis of Political Capital in Japan’, in Democracies in Flux: The Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society, ed. R. Putnam (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 359-92.
  • Knutsen, O. (1996) 'Value Orientations and Party Choice: A Comparative Study of the Relationship between Five Value Orientations and Voting Intention in Thirteen West European Democracies', in Wahlen und Politische Einstellungen in Westlichen Demokratien, ed. O. Gabriel and W. Falter (Frankfurt: Peter Lang) pp. 247-319.
  • Kolinsky, E. (2002) ‘Party Governance, Political Culture and the Transformation of East Germany since 1990’, in Continuity and Change in German Politics: Beyond the Politics of Centrality? A Festschrift for Gordon Smith, ed. S. Padgett and T. Poguntke (Cass: London and Portland, OR: Cass) pp. 169-83.
  • Kreiss, D. (2012) Taking Our Country Back: The Crafting of Networked Politics from Howard Dean to Barack Obama (New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Leites, N. (1960) American Foreign Policy (London: George Allen).
  • Levada, Y. (2001) ‘Homo Praevaricatus: Russian Doublethink’, in Contemporary Russian Politics: A Reader, ed. A. Brown (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 312-22.
  • Lewis, P. (2003) ‘Political Parties’, in Developments in Central and East European Politics 3, ed. S. White, J. Batt and P. Lewis (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 153-72.
  • Lijphart, A. (1968) The Politics of Accommodation: Pluralism and Democracy in the Netherlands (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press).
  • Lijphart, A. (1977) Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press).
  • Lijphart, A. (2002) ‘The Evolution of Consociational Theory and Consociational Practices, 1965-2000’, Acta Politica (37) 11-20.
  • Linz, J. (1975) [2000 edn] Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner).
  • Litvin, A. and Keep, J. (eds) (2005) Stalinism: Russian and Western Views at the Turn of the Milliennium (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Macpherson, C. (1977) The Life and Times of Liberal Democracy (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Mackenzie, G. and Labiner, J. (2002) Opportunity Lost: The Rise and Fall of Trust and Confidence in Government After September 11 (Washington, DC: Center For Public Service, Brookings Institution) Accessed April 15, 2006.
  • Madeley, J. (ed.) (2003) Religion and Politics (Aldershot and Burlington, VT: Ashgate).
  • McGarry, J. and O’Leary, B. (2006) ‘Consociational Theory, Northern Ireland’s Conflict and its Agreement – Part 1’, Government and Opposition (41) 43-63.
  • McKay, D. (2009) American Politics and Society, 7th edn (Chichester: Wiley).
  • Morlino, L. (1995) ‘Italy’s Civic Divide’, Journal of Democracy (6) 173-7.
  • Norris, P. (1999) ‘The Growth of Critical Citizens and Its Consequences’, in Critical Citizens: Global Support for Democratic Governance, ed. P. Norris (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 257-72.
  • Norris, P. (ed.) (1999) Critical Citizens: Global Support for Democratic Governance (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Norris, P. (2011) Democratic Deficit: Critical Citizens Revisited (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Norris, P. and Inglehart, R. (2011) Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide, 2nd edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Norris, P. and Inglehart, R. (2004) Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • O’Donnell, G. (1994) ‘Delegative Democracy’, Journal of Democracy (5) 55-69.
  • Paxton, R. (2004) The Anatomy of Fascism (London and New York: Penguin).
  • Pharr, S. and Putnam, R. (eds) (2000) Disaffected Democracies: What’s Troubling The Trilateral Countries? (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
  • Putnam, R. (1993) Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
  • Putnam, R. (ed.) (2002) Democracies in Flux: The Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Putnam, R. and Goss, K. (2002) ‘Introduction’, in Democracies in Flux: The Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society, ed. R. Putnam (New York and Oxford University Press) pp. 3-20.
  • Pye, L. (1985) Asian Power and Politics: The Cultural Dimensions of Authority (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
  • Pye, L. (1995) ‘Political Culture’, in The Encyclopaedia of Democracy, ed. S. Lipset (London and New York: Routledge) pp. 965-9.
  • Rohe, K. (1993) ‘The State Tradition in Germany: Continuities and Change’, in Political Culture in Germany, ed.D.Berg-Schlosser and R. Rytlewski (New York: St. Martin’s Press) pp. 215-31.
  • Ross, M. (2009) ‘Culture in Comparative Political Analysis’ in Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture and Structure, ed. M. Lichbach and A. Zuckerman (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 134-61
  • Roy, O. (1994) The Failure of Political Islam (London: LB. Taurus).
  • Saikal, A. (2003) Islam and the West: Conflict or Cooperation? (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Schöpflin, G. (1990) ‘Why Communism Collapsed’, International Affairs (66) 3-17.
  • Stepan, A. (2001) Arguing Comparative Politics (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Steven Fish, M. (2011) Are Muslims Distinctive? A Look at the Evidence (New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Stouffer, S. (1966) Communism, Conformity and Civil Liberties (New York: Wiley).
  • Stubager, R. (2010) ‘The Development of the Education Cleavage: Denmark as a Critical Case’, West European Politics (33) 505–33.
  • Verba, S. (1987) Elites and the Idea of Equality: A Comparison of Japan, Sweden and the United States (Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press).
  • Weber, M. (1905) [1930 English translation] The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (London: Allen & Unwin).
  • Welzel, C. and Inglehart, R. (2009) ‘Political Culture, Mass Beliefs, and Value Change’, in Democratization, ed. C. Haerpfer, P. Bernhagen, R. Inglehart and C. Welzel (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 127–44.

Chapter Seven: Political Communication

  • Albuquerque, A. de (2012) ‘On Models and Margins: Comparative Media Models Viewed from a Brazilian Perspective’, in Comparing Media Systems Beyond the Western World, ed. D. Hallin and P. Mancini (New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 72-95.
  • Althaus, S. (2003) Collective Preferences in Democratic Politics: Opinion Surveys and the Will of the People (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Aristotle (1962 edn) The Politics, trans. T. Sinclair (Harmondsworth and Baltimore, MD: Penguin).
  • Atton, C. (2004) An Alternative Internet: Radical Media, Politics and Creativity (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).
  • Balfour, S. (2005) The Politics of Contemporary Spain (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Barber, J. (1992) The Pulse of Politics: Electing Presidents in the Media Age (New Brunswick, NY and London: Transaction Books).
  • Bennett, W. Lance and Entman, R. (eds) (2001) Mediated Politics: Communication in the Future of Democracy (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Bishop, G. (2004) The Illusion of Public Opinion: Fact and Artefact in American Public Opinion Polls (Lanham, MD and Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield).
  • Bourgault, L. (1995) Mass Media in Sub-Saharan Africa (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press)
  • Bustamante, E. (2000) ‘Spain’s Interventionist and Authoritarian Communication Policy: Telefónica as a Political Battering Ram of the Spanish Right’, Media, Culture & Society (22) 433-55.
  • Brams, S. (2004) Game Theory and Politics (Mineola, NY: Dover).
  • Bytwerk, R. (2004) Bending Spines: The Propagandas of Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic (East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press).
  • Castells, M. (2003) The Internet Galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, Business and Society (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Chadwick, A. (2006) Internet Politics: States, Citizens and New Communication Technologies (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Curran, J. and Seaton, J. (2003) Power Without Responsibility: The Press and Broadcasting in Britain, 6th edn (London and New York: Methuen).
  • Dahl, R. (1998) On Democracy (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press).
  • Dooley, B. and Baron, S. (eds) (2001) The Politics of Information in Early Modern Europe (London and New York: Longman).
  • Eberle, J. (1990) ‘Understanding the Revolutions in Eastern Europe’, in Spring in Winter: The 1989 Revolutions, ed. G. Prins (Manchester: Manchester University Press) pp. 193-209.
  • Entman, R. (2004) Projections of Power: Framing News, Public Opinion and US Foreign Policy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
  • Esser, F. and Pfetsch, B. (eds) (2004) Comparing Political Communication: Theories, Cases and Challenges (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Feldman, O. (1993) Politics and the News Media in Japan (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press).
  • Fink, A. (2005) How To Conduct Surveys: A Step-by-Step Guide, 3rd edn (Thousand Oaks, CA and London: Sage).
  • Fishkin, J. and Laslett, P. (eds) (2003) Debating Deliberative Democracy (Oxford and New York: Blackwell).
  • Fishkin, J. (1991) Democracy and Deliberation: New Directions for Democratic Reform (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press).
  • Foweraker, T., Landman, T. and Harvey, N. (2003) Governing Latin America (Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity).
  • Fox, R. and Ramos, J. (2012) ‘Politics in the New Media Era’, in iPolitics: Citizens, Elections and Governing, ed. R. Fox and J. Ramos (New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 1–21.
  • Fox, R. and Ramos, J. (eds) (2012) iPolitics: Citizens, Elections and Governing (New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Gavin, N. and Sanders, D. (2003) ‘The Press and its Influence on British Political Attitudes under New Labour’, Political Studies (51) 573-91.
  • Glynn, C. et al. (1998) Public Opinion (Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview Press).
  • Goldsmith, J. and Wu, T. (2006) Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Graber, D. (2009) Mass Media and American Politics, 8th edn (Washington, DC: CQ Press).
  • Green, J. (1994) Dictionary of Cynical Quotations (London: Cassell).
  • Gunther, R. and Montero, J. (2009) The Politics of Spain (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Gunther, P. and Mughan, A. (eds) (2000) Democracy and the Media: A Comparative Perspective (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Gunther, R., Montero, J. and Botella, J. (2011) Democracy in Modern Spain (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press).
  • Hallin, D. and Mancini, P. (2004) Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Hallin, D. and Mancini, P. (eds) (2012) Comparing Media Systems Beyond the Western World (New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Hare, T. (1873) The Election of Representatives, Parliamentary and Municipal, 4th edn (London: Longmans, Green, Reader & Dyer).
  • Hellinger, D. (2003) ‘Political Overview: The Breakdown of Puntofijismo and the Rise of Chavismo’, in Venezuelan Politics in the Chávez Era: Class, Polarization and Conflict, ed. S. Ellner and D. Hellinger (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner) pp. 27-54.
  • Herbst, S. (1998) Reading Public Opinion: How Political Actors View The Political Process (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press).
  • Heywood, P. (1995) The Government and Politics of Spain (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
  • Heywood, P. and Closa, C. (2004) Spain and the European Union (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Hirst, P., Thompson, G. and Bromley, S. (2009) Globalization in Question: The International Economy and the Possibilities of Governance, 7th edn (Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell).
  • Iyengar, S., Peters, M. and Kinder, D. (1982) ‘Experimental Demonstrations of the “Not-So-Minimal” Consequences of Television News Programs’, American Political Science Review (76) 848-858.
  • Jamieson, K. and Waldman, P. (2003) The Press Effect: Politicians, Journalists and the Stories that Shape the Political World (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Johnson, D. (ed.) (2009) Campaigning for President: Strategy and Tactics, New Voices and New Techniques (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Jones, J. (2005) Entertaining Politics: New Political Television and Civic Culture (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield).
  • King, A. (ed.) (2002) Leaders’ Personalities and the Outcomes of Democratic Elections (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Klapper, J. (1960) The Effects of Mass Communication (New York and London: Free Press).
  • Krueger, R. and Casey, M. (2000) Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research, 3rd edn (Thousand Oaks, CA and London: Sage).
  • Lazarsfeld, P. and Merton, R. (1948) [1996 edn] ‘Mass Communication, Popular Taste and Organized Social Action’, in Media Studies: A Reader, ed. P. Marris and S. Thornham (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press) pp. 14-24.
  • Lesch, A. (2004) ‘Politics in Egypt’, in Comparative Politics Today: A World View, 8th edn, ed. G. Almond et al. (New York: Longman) pp. 581-632.
  • Lippman, W. (1922) Public Opinion (London: Allen & Unwin).
  • Magone, J. (2008) Contemporary Spanish Politics, 2nd edn(London and New York: Routledge).
  • Mann, M. (1986) The Sources of Social Power, Volume 1: A History of Power from the Beginning to AD 1780 (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Mason, R. (2006) ‘The Media’ in Developments in American Politics 5, ed. G. Peele et al. (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 165-81.
  • Mazzoleni, G. (1987) ‘Media Logic and Party Logic in Campaign Coverage: The Italian General Election of 1983’, European Journal of Communication (2) 81–103.
  • McCargo, D. (2002) Media and Politics in Pacific Asia (London and New York: Routledge).
  • McCargo, D. (2012) ‘Partisan Polyvalence: Characterizing the Political Role of Asian Media’, in Comparing Media Systems Beyond the Western World, ed. D. Hallin and P. Mancini (New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 201–23.
  • McChesney, R. (1999) Rich Media, Poor Democracies (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press).
  • McKay, D. (2009) American Politics and Society, 7th edn (Chichester: Wiley).
  • Miller, W. (1991) Media and Voters: Audience, Content and Influence of Press and Television at the 1987 General Election (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
  • Milton, A. (2000) The Rational Politician: Exploiting the Media in New Democracies (Aldershot: Ashgate).
  • Mitchell, A. (1982) ‘The Local Campaign, 1977-79’, in Political Communications: The General Election Campaign of 1979, ed. R. Worcester and M. Harrop (London: Allen & Unwin) pp. 36-42.
  • Mughan, A. (2000) Media and the Presidentialization of Parliamentary Elections (Basingstoke: Palgrave).
  • Murrie, M. (2006) ‘Broadcasters Getting Online, Staying On Air’, eJournal USA (11) Accessed April 28, 2006.
  • Newton, K. (2006) ‘May The Weak Force Be With You: The Power of the Mass Media in Modern Politics’, European Journal of Political Research (45) 209-34.
  • Norris, P. (2000) A Virtuous Circle: Political Communication in Postindustrial Societies (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Norris, P., Kern, M. and Just, M. (eds) (2003) Framing Terrorism: The News Media, the Government and the Public (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Oates, S. (2005) ‘Media and Political Communication’, in Developments in Russian Politics 6, ed. S. White, Z. Gitelman and R. Sakwa (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 114-29.
  • Oates, S. (2006) Television, Democracy and Elections in Russia (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Olesen, T. (2003) International Zapatismo: The Construction of Solidarity in the Age of Globalization (London: Zed Books).
  • Peskin, D. and Nachison, A. (2006) ‘Emerging Media Reshape Global Society’, eJournal USA (11) Accessed April 28, 2006.
  • Preston, P. (2004) Juan Carlos: Steering Spain from Dictatorship to Democracy (New York and London: Norton).
  • Qualter, T. (1991) ‘Public Opinion’, in The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Science, ed. V. Bogdanor (Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell) p. 511.
  • Semetko, H. and Scammell, M. (eds) (2012) The Sage Handbook of Political Communication (London: Sage).
  • Shirk, S. (ed.) (2011) Changing Media, Changing China (New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Srebeny, A. and Khiabany, G. (2010) Blogistan: The Internet and Politics in Iran (London: I. B. Tauris).
  • Stimson, J. (1991) Public Opinion in America: Moods, Cycles and Swings (Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview Press).
  • Stimson, J. (2004) Tides of Consent: How Public Opinion Shapes American Politics (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Street, J. (2011) Mass Media, Politics and Democracy, 2nd edn(Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave).
  • Tracey, M. (1998) The Decline and Fall of Public Service Broadcasting (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Weissberg, R. (2002) Polling, Policy and Public Opinion: The Case Against Heeding ‘The Voice of the People’ (London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Wellman, B. (2001) ‘Does the Internet Increase, Decrease or Supplement Social Capital? Social Networks, Participation and Community Commitment’, Research Bulletin (6) (Toronto: Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto).
  • Wheeler, D. and Mintz, L. (2012) ‘New Media and Political Change: Lessons from Internet Users in Jordan, Egypt, and Kuwait’, in iPolitics: Citizens, Elections, and Governing in the New Internet Era, ed. R. Fox and J. Ramos (Cambridge University Press) pp. 259–87.
  • Wigbold, H. (1979) ‘Holland: The Shaky Pillars of Hilversum’, in Television and Political Life, ed. A. Smith (London: Macmillan) pp. 191-231.
  • Williams, R. (1962) Communications (Harmondsworth and New York: Penguin).
  • Willnat, L. and Aw, A (eds) (2009) Political Communication in Asia (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Zhao, S (ed.) (2006) Debating Political Reform in China: Rule of Law vs. Democratization (Armonk, NY and London: M.E. Sharpe).

Chapter Eight: Political Participation

  • Adman, P. (2009) ‘The Puzzle of Gender-Equal Political Participation in Sweden: The Importance of Norms and Mobilization’, Scandinavian Political Studies (32) 315–36.
  • Albrecht, H. (2008) ‘The Nature of Political Participation’, in Political Participation in the Middle East, ed. E. Lust-Okar and S. Zerhouni (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner) pp. 15–32.
  • Althaus, S. (2003) Collective Preferences in Democratic Politics: Opinion Surveys and the Will of the People (New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Bauer, G. and Tremblay, M. (eds) (2011) Women in Executive Power: A Global Overview (Abingdon: Routledge).
  • Bellamy, R. (2008) Citizenship: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Bennett, W. Lance (2005) ‘Social Movements beyond Borders: Understanding Two Eras of Transnational Activism’, in Transnational Protest and Global Activism, ed. D. della Porta and S. Tarrow (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield) pp. 203-26.
  • Canel, E. (1992) ‘Democratization and the Decline of Urban Social Movements in Uruguay: A Political Institutional Account’, in The Making of Social Movements in Latin America: Identity, Strategy and Democracy, ed. A. Escobar and S. Alvarez (Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview) pp. 276-90.
  • Chazan, N. et al. (1999) Politics and Society in Contemporary Africa, 3rd edn (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner).
  • Dahlerup, D. (ed.) (2006) Women, Quotas, and Politics (New York: Routledge).
  • Dalton, R. (2008) Citizen Politics: Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies, 5th edn (Washington, DC: CQ Press).
  • Dalton, R. and Sickle, A. van (2005) The Resource, Structural and Cultural Bases of Protest (Center for the Study of Democracy, University of California, Irvine).
  • Darcy, R., Welch, S. and Clark, J. (1994) Women, Elections and Representation, 2nd edn (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press).
  • Davies, J. (1962) ‘Toward a Theory of Revolution’, American Sociological Review (27) 5-18.
  • de Tocqueville, A. (1835) [1966 edn] Democracy in America (New York: Vintage Books). Also available on-line at the American Studies website at the University of Virginia: http://xroads.virginia.edu
  • de Tocqueville, A. (1856) [1954 edn] The Ancien Regime and the Revolution in France (London: Fontana).
  • della Porta, D. and Diani, M. (1999) Social Movements: An Introduction (Malden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell).
  • della Porta, D., Kriesi, H. and Rucht, D. (eds) (1999) Social Movements in a Globalizing World (London: Macmillan and New York: St Martin’s Press).
  • Eckstein, H. (1998) ‘Russia and the Conditions of Democracy’, in Can Democracy Take Root in Post-Soviet Russia? Explorations in State-Society Relations, ed. H. Eckstein et al. (Lanham, MD and Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield) pp. 349-81.
  • Fish, M. (2005) Democracy Derailed in Russia: The Failure of Open Politics (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Fishkin, J. (1991) Democracy and Deliberation: New Directions for Democratic Reform (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).
  • Fishkin, J. (2011) When the People Speak: Deliberative Democracy and Public Consultation (New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Foran, J. (ed.) (1997) Theorizing Revolutions (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Hagopian, F. and Mainwaring, S. (eds) (2005) The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America: Advances and Setbacks (New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Gambetta, D. (2005) ‘Can We Make Sense of Suicide Missions?’ in Making Sense of Suicide Missions, ed. D. Gambetta (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 259-300.
  • Goban-Klas, T. and Sasinka-Klas, T. (1992) ‘From Closed to Open Communication Systems’, in Democracy and Civil Society in Eastern Europe, ed. P. Lewis (London: Macmillan and New York: St Martin’s Press) pp. 76-90.
  • Goldstone, J. (1991) ‘An Analytical Framework’, in Revolutions of the Late Twentieth Century, ed. J. Goldstone, T. Gurr and F. Moshiri (Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview) pp. 37-51.
  • Goodwin, J. and Jasper, J. (2003) ‘Editors’ Introduction’, in The Social Movements Reader: Cases and Concepts, ed. J. Goodwin and J. Jaspers (Malden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell) pp. 3-7.
  • Goodwin, J. and Jasper, J. (eds) (2003) The Social Movements Reader: Cases and Concepts (Malden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell).
  • Green, J. (2010) The Eyes of the People: Democracy in an Age of Spectatorship (New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Guo, G. (2007) ‘Organizational Involvement and Political Participation in China’, Comparative Political Studies (40) 457-82.
  • Gurr, T. (1980) Why Men Rebel (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
  • Hagopian, F. and Mainwaring, S. (eds) (2005) The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America: Advances and Setbacks (New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Hatzfeld, J. (2005) A Time for Machetes: The Rwandan Genocide - The Killers Speak (London: Serpent’s Tail).
  • Herbst, S. (1998) Reading Public Opinion: How Political Actors View The Political Process (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
  • Hughes, M. (2011) ‘Intersectionality, Quotas, and Minority Women’s Political Representation Worldwide’, American Political Science Review (105) 604–20.
  • Ibarra, P. (2003) Social Movements and Democracy (London: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Inglehart, R. (1997) Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic and Social Change in 43 Societies (Princeton, NJ and London: Princeton University Press).
  • Inglehart, R. and Welzel, C. (2005) Modernization, Cultural Change and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Jayanntha, D. (1991) Electoral Allegiance in Sri Lanka (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Joyce, P. (2002) The Politics of Protest: Extra-Parliamentary Politics in Britain since 1970 (London: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Kavanagh, D. and Butler, D. (2005) The British General Election of 2005 (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Kittilson, M. and Schwindt-Bayer, L. (2012) The Gendered Effect of Electoral Institutions: Political Engagement and Participation (New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Kornhauser, W. (1959) The Politics of Mass Society (Glencoe, IL: Free Press).
  • Krook, M. (2007) ‘Candidate Gender Quotas: A Framework for Analysis’, European Journal of Political Research (46) 367–94.
  • Krook, M. (2009) Quotas for Women in Politics: Gender and Candidate Selection Reform Worldwide (New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Lachmann, R. (1997) Agents of Revolution: Elite Conflicts and Mass Mobilization from the Medici to the Yemen’, in Theorizing Revolutions, ed. J. Foran (London and New York: Routledge) pp. 73-101.
  • LaPalombara, J. (1974) Politics Within Nations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall).
  • Listhaug, O. and Grønflaten, L. (2007) ‘Civic Decline? Trends in Political Involvement in Norway, 1965-2001’, Scandinavian Political Studies (30) 272-99.
  • Lust-Okar, E. and Zerhouni, S. (eds) (2008) Political Participation in the Middle East (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner).Lutz, J. and Lutz, B. (2004) Global Terrorism (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Lynd, R. and Lynd, H. (1929) Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture (New York: Harcourt Brace).
  • Macedo, S. et al (2005) Democracy at Risk: How Political Choices Undermine Citizen Participation, and What We Can D About It (Washington, DC: Brookings).
  • McAllister, I. and Studlar, D. (2002) ‘Electoral Systems and Women’s Representation: A Long-Term Perspective’, Representation (39) 3-14.
  • Mickiewicz, E. (2008) Television, Power and the Public in Russia (New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Milbrath, L. and Goel, M. (1977) Political Participation: How and Why Do People Get Involved in Politics, 2nd edn (Chicago, IL: Rand McNally).
  • Milgram, S. (1974) Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View (New York: Harper & Row).
  • Norris, P. (2002) Democratic Phoenix: Reinventing Political Activism (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Norris, P. (2009) ‘New Feminist Challenges to the Study of Political Engagement’, in The Oxford Handbook of Political Behavior, ed. R. Dalton and H-.D. Klingemann (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 724–41.
  • Owen, R. (1993) ‘The Practice of Electoral Democracy in the Arab East and North Africa: Some Lessons from Nearly a Century’s Experience’ in Rules and Rights in the Middle East, ed. E. Goldberg et al. (Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press) pp. 17-40.
  • Parry, G., Moyser, G. and Day, N. (1992) Political Participation and Democracy in Britain (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Pattie, C., Seyd, P. and Whiteley, P. (2004) Citizenship in Britain: Values, Participation and Democracy (New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Pedahzur, A. (2005) Suicide Terrorism (Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity Press).
  • Pharr, S. and Putnam, R. (eds) (2000) Disaffected Democracies: What’s Troubling The Trilateral Countries? (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
  • Putnam, R. (1976) The Comparative Study of Political Elites (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall).
  • Putnam, R. (1993) Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
  • Putnam, R. (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon & Schuster).
  • Putnam, R. (ed.) (2002) Democracies in Flux: The Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Remington, T. (2004) ‘Politics in Russia’, in Comparative Politics Today: A World View, 8th edn, ed. G. Almond et al. (New York and London: Pearson Longman) pp. 366-417.
  • Remington, T. (2011) Politics in Russia, 7th edn (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall).
  • Riesman, D. (1950) The Lonely Crowd (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).
  • Rosanvallon, P. (2008) Counter-Democracy: Politics in an Age of Distrust (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Rose, R. (1999) ‘Living in an Antimodern Society’, East European Consitutional Review (8) 68-75.
  • Rucht, D. (2007) ‘The Spread of Protest Politics’, in The Oxford Handbook of Political Behavior, ed. R. Dalton and H-.D. Klingemann (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 708–23.
  • Rueschmeyer, D., Rueschmeyer, M. and Wittrock, B. (1998) ‘Contrasting Patterns of Participation and Democracy’, in Participation and Democracy: Comparisons and Interpretations, ed. D. Rueschmeyer, M. Rueschmeyer and B. Wittrock (Armonk, NY and London: M. E. Sharpe) pp. 266-84.
  • Sakwa, R. (2002) Russian Politics and Society, 3rd edn (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Sakwa, R. (2011) The Crisis of Russian Democracy: The Dual State, Factionalism and the Medvedev Succession (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Schudson, M. (1998) The Good Citizen: A History of American Civic Life (Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press).
  • Scott, J. (1985) Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance (New haven, CT: Yale University Press).
  • Seligson, M. (2005) ‘Democracy on Ice: The Multiple Challenges of Guatemala’s Peace Process’, in The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America: Advances and Setbacks, ed. F.Hagopian and S. Mainwaring (New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) pp. 202-34.
  • Skocpol, T. (1979) States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia and China (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Stevens, A. (2007) Women, Power and Politics (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Stimson, J. (2004) Tides of Consent: How Public Opinion Shapes American Politics (New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Stimson, J. (2009) ‘Perspectives on Representation’, in The Oxford Handbook of Political Behavior, ed. R. Dalton and H.-D. Klingemann (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 850–61.
  • Stokes, W. (2005) Women in Contemporary Politics (Cambridge: Polity).
  • Tarrow, S. (1998) Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics, 2nd edn (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Tarrow, S. (2005) The New Transnational Activism (New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Tarrow, S. and McAdam, D. (2005) ‘Scale Shifts in Transnational Contention’, in Transnational Protest and Global Activism, ed. D. della Porta and S. Tarrow (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield) pp. 121-50.
  • Thomas, S. (2005) ‘Introduction’, in Women and Elective Office, 2nd edn, ed. S. Thomas and C. Wilcox (New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 3–25.
  • Tilly, C. (1978) From Mobilization to Revolution (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley).
  • Tilly, C. (2004) Social Movements, 1768-2004 (Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers).
  • Trotsky, L. (1932/3) [1965 edn] The History of the Russian Revolution, Vol. 1, trans. M. Eastman (London: Gollancz) p. 216.
  • van Woerkens, M. (2002) The Strangled Traveler: Colonial Imaginings and the Thugs of India, trans. C. Tihanyi (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press).
  • Verba, S., Scholzman, K. and Brady, H. (1995) Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics (Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press).
  • Weissberg, R. (2002) Polling, Policy and Public Opinion: The Case Against Heeding ‘The Voice of the People’ (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • White, S. (2011) Understanding Russian Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • White, S., Gitelman, Z. and Sakwa, R. (eds) (2005) Developments in Russian Politics 6 (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • White, S., Hale, H. and Sakwa, R. (eds) (2009) Developments in Russian Politics 7 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Whiteley, P. (2012) Political Participation in Britain: The Decline and Revival of Civic Culture (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Yang, D. (1996) Calamity and Reform in China: State, Rural Society and Institutional Change since the Great Leap Forward (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press).
  • Zirakzadeh, C. (1997) Social Movements in Politics: A Comparative Study (London and New York: Longman).

Chapter Nine: Interest Groups

  • Arter, D. (1999) Scandinavian Politics Today (Manchester: Manchester University Press, and New York: St Martin’s Press).
  • Bentley, A. (1908) The Process of Government (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press).
  • Berger, S. and Compston, H. (eds) (2002) Policy Concertation and Social Partnership in Western Europe: Lessons for the 21st Century (New York and Oxford: Berghahn).
  • Beyers, J., Eising, R. and Maloney, W. (eds) (2009) Interest Group Politics in Europe: Lessons from EU Studies and Comparative Politics (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Binderkrantz, A. (2005) ‘Interest Group Strategies: Navigating Between Privileged Access and Strategies of Pressure’, Political Studies (53) 694-715.
  • Blom-Hansen, J. (2000) ‘Still Corporatism in Scandinavia: A Survey of Recent Empirical Findings’, Scandinavian Political Studies (23) 157-81.
  • Brooker, P. (2000) Non-Democratic Regimes: Theory, Government and Politics (Basingstoke: Macmillan, and New York: St Martin’s Press).
  • Brooks, S. (2012) Canadian Democracy: An Introduction, 7th edn (Don Mills, Ontario: Oxford University Press).
  • Chari, R., Murphy, G. and Hogan, J. (2007) ‘Regulating Lobbyists: A Comparative Analysis of the United States, Canada, Germany and the European Union’, Political Quarterly (78) 422-38.
  • Chari, R., Murphy, G. and Hogan, J. (2010) Regulating Lobbying: A Global Comparison (Manchester: Manchester University Press).
  • Cigler, C. and Loomis, B. (eds) (2012) Interest Group Politics, 8th edn (Washington: Congressional Quarterly Press).
  • Clark, P. and Wilson, J. (1961) ‘Incentive System: A Theory of Organization’, Administrative Science Quarterly (6) 129-66.
  • Clément, K. (2008) ‘New Social Movements in Russia: A Challenge to the Dominant Model of Power Relationships’, Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics (24) 68-89.
  • Crisp, B. (2000) Democratic Institutional Design: The Powers and Incentives of Venezuelan Politicians and Interest Groups (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press).
  • Dahl, R. (1961) Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press).
  • Dahl, R. (1993) ‘Pluralism’, in The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World, ed. J. Krieger (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 704-7.
  • Dalton, R. (1994) The Green Rainbow: Environmental Groups in Western Europe (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press).
  • de Tocqueville, A. (1856) [1954 edn] The Ancien Regime and the Revolution in France (London: Fontana).
  • Eising, R. (2003) ‘Interest Groups and the European Union’, in European Union Politics, ed. M. Cini (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 192-204.
  • Eising, R. and Cini, M. (2002) ‘Disintegration or Recon­figuration? Organized Interests in Western Europe’, in Developments in West European Politics 2, ed. P. Heywood, E. Jones and M. Rhodes (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave) pp. 168-83.
  • Evans Jr, A. (2005) ‘A Russian Civil Society?’, in Developments in Russian Politics 6, ed. S. White, Z. Gitelman and R. Sakwa (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 96-113.
  • Gordon, S. (2005) Campaign Contributions and Legislative Voting: A New Approach (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Greenwood, J. (2011) Interest Representation in the European Union, 3rd edn(Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Heclo, H. (1978) ‘Issue Networks and the Executive Establishment’, in The New American Political System, ed. A. King (Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute) pp. 87-124.
  • Herbst, J. (2001) ‘Political Liberalization in Africa after 10 Years,’ Comparative Politics (33) 357-75.
  • Hosli, M., van Deemen, A. and Widgrén, M. (eds) (2002) Institutional Challenges in the European Union (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Hix, S. and Hoyland (2012) The Political System of the European Union, 3rd edn (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Hrebenar, R. (1997) Interest Group Politics in America, 3rd edn (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall).
  • Jordan, G. and Maloney, W. (2007) Democracy and Interest Groups: Enhancing Participation? (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Klijn, E.-H. And Skelcher, C. (2007) ‘Democracy and Governance Networks: Compatible or Not?’, Public Administration (85) 587-608.
  • Landes, R. (2002) The Canadian Polity: A Comparative Introduction, 6th edn(Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice Hall Canada).
  • Lelieveldt, H. and Princen, S. (2011) The Politics of the European Union (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Lowi, T. (1969) The End of Liberalism (New York: Norton).
  • Mahoney, C. and Baumgartner, F. (2008) ‘Converging Perspectives on Interest-Group Research in Europe and America’, West European Politics (31) 1253–73.
  • Maisel, L. Sandy and Berry, J. (eds) (2010) The Oxford Handbook of American Political Parties and Interest Groups (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Maloney, W. (2009) ‘Interest Groups and the Revitalization of Democracy’, Representation (45) 277-88.
  • Manion, M. (2004) ‘Politics in China’, in Comparative Politics Today: A World View, 8th edn, ed. G. Almond et al. (New York and London: Pearson Longman) pp. 418-65.
  • Marsh, D. and Rhodes, R. (eds) (1992) Policy Networks in British Government (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Mattli, W. (1999) The Logic of Regional Integration (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Matthews, T. (1989) ‘Interest Groups’, in Politics in Australia, ed. R. Smith and L. Watson (Sydney: Allen & Unwin) pp. 211-27.
  • Mazey, S. and Richardson, J. (2001) ‘Interest Groups and EU Policy-Making: Organizational Logic and Venue Shopping’, in European Union: Power and Policy-Making, 2nd edn, ed. J. Richardson (London and New York) pp. 217-38.
  • McKay, D. (2005) American Politics and Society, 6th edn (Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell).
  • Mills, C. Wright (1956) The Power Elite (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Nugent, N. (2010) The Government and Politics of the European Union, 7th edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • O’Sullivan, N. (1986) Fascism (London: Dent).
  • Olson, M. (1968) The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups (New York: Schocken Books).
  • Peregudov, S. (2001) ‘The Oligarchical Model of Russian Capitalism’, in Contemporary Russian Politics: A Reader, ed. A. Brown (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 259-68.
  • Petracca, M. (1992) ‘The Rediscovery of Interest Group Politics’, in The Politics of Interests: Interest Groups Transformed, ed. M. Petracca (Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview) pp. 3-31.
  • Ripley, R. and Franklin, G. (1991) Congress, the Bureaucracy and Public Policy, 5th edn (Homewood IL: The Dorsey Press).
  • Rothchild, D. (1997) Managing Ethnic Conflict in Africa: Pressures and Incentives for Cooperation (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press).
  • Rousseau, J.-J. (1755) [1988 edn] Rousseau’s Political Writings, ed. A. Ritter and J. Bondanella (New York and London: Norton).
  • Saich, A. (2011) Governance and Politics of China, 3rd edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave).
  • Schattschneider, E. (1960) The Semisovereign People (New York: Holt, Reinhart, Winston).
  • Scholzman, K. (2010) ‘Who Sings in the Heavenly Chorus? The Shape of the Organized Interest System’, in The Oxford Handbook of American Political Parties and Interest Groups, ed. L. Sandy Maisel and J. Berry (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 425–50.
  • Smith, M. (1995) Pressure Politics (Manchester: Baseline Books).
  • Tálos, E. and Kittel B. (2002) ‘Austria in the 1990s: The Routine of Social Partnership in Question?’ in Policy Concertation and Social Partnership: Lessons for the 21st Century, ed. S. Berger and H. Compston (New York and Oxford: Berghahn) pp. 35-50.
  • Thomas, C. (ed.) (2001) Political Parties and Interest Groups: Shaping Democratic Governance (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner).
  • Thomas, C. and Hrebenar, R. (2009) ‘Comparing Lobbying Across Liberal Democracies’: Problems, Approaches and Initial Findings,’ Journal of Comparative Politics (2) 131–42.
  • Schattschneider, E. (1942) Party Government (New York: Farrar & Reinhart).
  • Silvia, S. and Schroeder, W. (2007) ‘Why Are German Employees’ Associations Declining? Arguments and Evidence’, Comparative Political Studies (40) 1433-59.
  • Smith, M. (1995) Pressure Politics (Manchester: Baseline Books).
  • Visser, J. (2006) ‘Union Membership Statistics in 24 Countries’, Monthly Labor Review Online (129), http://www.bls.gov, accessed 3 October 2009.
  • Walker, J. (1991) Mobilizing Interest Groups in America: Patrons, Professionals and Social Movements (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press).
  • Wiarda, H. (ed.) (2004) Authoritarianism and Corporatism in Latin America Revisited (Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida).
  • Wilson, G. (1990) Interest Groups (Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell).
  • Wilson, G. (2003) Business and Politics: A Comparative Introduction, 3rd edn (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
  • Woll, C. (2006) ‘Lobbying in the European Union: From Sui Generis to a Comparative Perspective’, Journal of European Public Policy (13) 456-69.

Chapter Ten: Political Parties

  • Adams, J., Green, J. and Milazzo, C. (2012) ‘Has the British Public Depolarized Along with Political Elites? An American Perspective on British Public Opinion’, Comparative Political Studies (45) 507–30.
  • Akkerman, T. (2012) ‘Comparing Radical Right Parties in Government: Immigration and Integration Policies in 9 Countries, 1966–2010’, West European Politics (35) 511–29.
  • Alexander, H. (2005) ‘Comparative Analysis of Political Party and Campaign Financing in the United States and Canada’, in The Delicate Balance between Political Equity and Freedom of Expression: Political Party and Campaign Financing in Canada and the United States, ed. S. Griner and D. Zovatto (Washington, DC: International IDEA).
  • Bale, T. and Dunphy, R. (2011) ‘In from the cold? Left parties and government involvement since 1989’, Comparative European Politics (9) 269–91.
  • Bardi, L. and Mair, P. (2008) ‘The Parameters of Party Systems’, Party Politics (14) 147-66.
  • Bartolini, S. and Mair, P. (2001) ‘Challenges to Contemporary Political Parties’, in Political Parties and Democracy, ed. L. Diamond and R. Gunther (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press) pp. 327-44.
  • Betz, H.-G. (1994) Radical Right-Wing Populism in Western Europe (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
  • Blondel, J. (1993) ‘Consensus Politics and Multiparty Systems’, paper presented at the Conference on Consensual Policymaking and Multiparty Politics, Australian National University, 1993.
  • Blondel, J. (1995) Comparative Government: An Introduction, 2nd edn (Harlow and New York: Longman).
  • Bolleyer, N. (2012) ‘New Party Organization Western Europe: Hierarchies, Stratarchies and Federations’, Party Politics (18) 315–36.
  • Brewer, M. (2010) ‘Strategic Maneuvers: Political Parties and the Pursuit of Winning Coalitions in a Constantly Changing Electoral Environment’, in New Directions in American Political Parties, ed. J. Stonecash (New York: Routledge) pp. 22–43.
  • Broder, D. (1972) The Party’s Over: The Failure of Politics in America (New York: Harper and Row).
  • Brooker, P. (2009) Non-Democratic Regimes: Theory, Government and Politics, 2nd edn(Basingstoke: Macmillan and New York: St Martin’s Press).
  • Bull, M. and Newell, J. (2005) Italian Politics: Adjustment under Duress (Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity).
  • Bull, M. and Rhodes, M. (eds) (2008) Italy: A Contested Polity (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Cain, B. and Goux, D. (2006) ‘Parties in an Era of Renewed Partisanship’, in Developments in American Politics 5, ed. G. Peele et al. (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 37-52.
  • Carty, K. (2002) ‘Canada’s Nineteenth-Century Cadre Parties at the Millennium’, in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies, ed. P. Webb, D. Farrell and I. Holliday (Oxford New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 131-52.
  • Carty, K. (2004) ‘Parties as Franchise Organizations: The Stratarchical Organizational Imperative’, Party Politics (10) 5–24.
  • Coppedge, M. (2005) ‘Explaining Democratic Deterioration in Venezuela through Nested Inference’, in The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America, ed. F. Hagopian and S. Mainwaring (New York and Cambridge: Camrbidge University Press) pp. 289-318.
  • Cotta, M. (2000) ‘Defining Party and Government’, in The Nature of Party Government: A Comparative European Perspective, ed. J. Blondel and M. Cotta (Basingstoke: Macmillan) pp. 56-95.
  • Cotta, M. and Verzichelli, L. (2007) Political Institutions in Italy (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Cross, W. and Young, L. (2004) ‘The Contours of Political Party Membership in Canada’, Party Politics (10) 427-44.
  • Cross, W. and Blais, A. (2012) Politics at the Centre: The Selection and Removal of Party Leaders in the Anglo Parliamentary Democracies (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Cross, W. and Blais, A. (2012) ‘Who Selects the Party Leader?’ Party Politics (18) 127–50.
  • Cross, W. and Katz, R. (eds) (2013) The Challenges of Intra-Party Democracy (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Crotty, W. (2006) ‘Party Transformations: The United States and Western Europe’, in Handbook of Party Politics, ed. R. Katz and W. Crotty (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage) pp. 499-514.
  • Cummings, S. (2005) Kazakhstan: Power and the Elite (London and New York: I. B. Taurus).
  • Deschouwer, K. (2006) ‘Political Parties as Multi-level Organizations’, in Handbook of Party Politics, ed. R. Katz and W. Crotty (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage) pp. 291-300.
  • Duverger, M. (1954) [1970 edn] Political Parties (London: Methuen).
  • Fisher, J. and Eisenstadt, T. (2004) ‘Comparative Party Finance: What Is To Be Done?’ Party Politics (10) 619-26.
  • Gallagher, M., Laver, M. and Mair, P.(2011) Representative Government in Modern Europe: Institutions, Parties, and Governments, 5th edn (New York and London: McGraw-Hill).
  • Ginsborg, P. (2003) A History of Contemporary Italy: Society and Politics, 1943-1988 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Gunther, R., Montero, J. and Linz, J. (eds) (2002) Political Parties: Old Concepts and New Challenges (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Hazan, R. (2002) ‘Candidate Selection’, in Comparing Democracies 2: New Challenges in the Study of Elections and Voting, ed. L. LeDuc, R. Niemi and P. Norris (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage) pp. 108-26.
  • Hazan, R. and Rahat, G. (2010) Democracy within Parties: Candidate Selection Methods and Their Political Consequences (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
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Chapter Eleven: Elections

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  • Wlezien, C. (2010) ‘Election Campaigns’ in Comparing Democracies 3: Elections and Voting in the 21st Century, ed. L. Leduc, R. Niemi and P. Norris (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage) pp. 98–117.
  • Wood, G. (1993) ‘Democracy and the American Revolution’, in Democracy: The Unfinished Journey: 508 BC to AD 1993, ed. J. Dunn (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 91-106.
  • Zakaria, F. (2003) The Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad (New York and London: Norton).
  • Zaslavsky, K. and Brym, J. (1978) ‘The Functions of Elections in the USSR’, Soviet Studies (30) 362-71.

Chapter Twelve: Voters

  • Aardal and Binder, T. (2011) ‘Leader Effects and Party Characteristics’, in Political Leaders and Democratic Election, ed. K. Aarts, A. Blais and H. Schmitt (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 108-26.
  • Aarts, K., Blais, A. and Schmitt, H. (eds) (2011) Political Leaders and Democratic Elections (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Abramowitz, A. (1988) ‘An Improved Model for Predicting Presidential Election Outcomes’, PS: Political Science & Politics (21) 843-7.
  • Abramowitz, A. (2010) ‘Ideological Realignment among Voters’, in New Directions in American Political Parties, ed. J. Stonecash (New York: Routledge) pp. 126-47.
  • Ansolabehere, S. (2006) ‘Voters, Candidates and Parties’ in The Oxford Handbook of Political Economy, ed. B. Weingast and D. Wittman (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 29-49.
  • Bittner, A. (2011) Platform or Personality? The Role of Party Leaders in Elections (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Blais, A., Dobrzynska, A. and Massicotte, L. (2003) Why is Turnout Higher in Some Countries than in Others? (Ottawa, Ontario: Elections Canada).
  • Brewer-Caríos, A. (2010) Dismantling Democracy in Venezuela: The Chávez Authoritarian Experiment (New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Butler, D. and Stokes, D. (1971) Political Change in Britain: Forces Shaping Electoral Choice (Harmondsworth: Penguin).
  • Denver, D., Carman, C. and Johns, R. (2012) Elections and Voters in Britain, 3rd edn (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Downs, A. (1957) An Economic Theory of Democracy (New York: Harper).
  • Duch, R. and Stevenson, R. (2008) The Economic Vote: How Political and Economic Institutions Condition Electoral Results (New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Eijk, C. van der and Franklin, M. (2009) Elections and Voters (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Erikson, R., Mackuen, M. and Stimson, J. (2002) The Macro Polity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Esmer, Y. and Petersson, T. (2007) ‘The Effects of Religion and Religiosity on Voting Behavior’ in The Oxford Handbook of Political Behavior, ed. R. Dalton and H.-D. Klingemann (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 481-503.
  • Evans, G. and de Graaf, N. (eds) (2012) Political Choice Matters: Explaining the Strength of Class and Religious Cleavages in Cross-National Perspective (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Franklin, M. (2004) Voter Turnout and the Dynamics of Electoral Competition in Established Democracies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Franklin, M. and Webber, T. (2010) ‘American Electoral Practices in Comparative Perspective’, in The Oxford Handbook of American Elections and Political Behavior, ed. J. Leighley (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 667-84.>
  • Gates, L. (2010) Electing Chávez: The Business of Anti-Neoliberal Politics in Venezuela (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press).
  • Goldthorpe, J. (1999) ‘Modelling the Pattern of Class Voting in Britain, 1964-92’, in The End of Class Politics: Class Voting in Comparative Context, ed. G. Evans (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 59-82
  • Goren, P. (2012) On Voter Competence (New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Gott, R. (2011) Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian Revolution, 2nd edn (London: Verso).
  • Green, J. (2010b) ‘Gauging the God Gap: Religion and Voting in US Presidential Elections’ in The Oxford Handbook of American Elections and Political Behavior, ed. J. Leighley (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 433-49.
  • Green, D. and Shapiro, I. (1994) Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory: A Critique of Applications in Political Science (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).
  • Harrop, M. and Miller, W. (1987) Elections and Voters: A Comparative Introduction (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
  • Hellwig, T. (2010) ‘Elections and the Economy’ in Comparing Democracies 3: New Challenges in the Study of Elections and Voting, ed. L. LeDuc, R. Niemi and P. Norris, (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage) pp. 184-201.
  • Hibbs, D., Jr (2006) ‘’Voting and the Macroeconomy’ in The Oxford Handbook of Political Economy, ed. B. Weingast and D. Wittman (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 565-86.
  • Hill, L. (2002) ‘On the Rightness of Compelling Citizens to “Vote”: The Australian Case’, Political Studies (50) 80–101.
  • Holmberg, S. and Oscarsson, H. (2011) ‘Party Leader Effects on the Vote’ in Political Leaders and Democratic Elections, ed. K. Aarts, A. Blais and H. Schmitt (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 35-51.
  • Kavanagh, D. and Butler, D. (2005) The British General Election of 2005 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Key, V. (1966) The Responsible Electorate (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
  • King, A. (2002) ‘Conclusions and Implications’ in Leaders’ Personalities and the Outcomes of Democratic Elections, ed. A. King (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 210-221.
  • King, A. (ed.) (2002) Leaders’ Personalities and the Outcomes of Democratic Elections (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Knutsen, O. (1996) ‘Value Orientations and Party Choice: A Comparative Study of the Relationship between Five Value Orientations and Voting Intention in Thirteen West European Democracies’, in Wahlen und Politische Einstellungen in Westlichen Demokratien, ed. O. Gabriel and W. Falter (Frankfurt: Peter Lang) pp. 247–319.
  • Knutsen, O. (2006) Class Voting in Western Europe: A Comparative Longitudinal Study (Lanham, MD: Lexington).
  • Knutsen, O. (2007) ‘The Decline of Social Class?’ in The Oxford Handbook of Political Behaviour, ed. R. Dalton and H.-D. Klingemann (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 457-80.
  • Kuklinski, J. and Peyton, B. (2007) ‘Belief Systems and Political Decision Making’ in The Oxford Handbook of Political Behaviour, ed. R. Dalton and H.-D. Klingemann (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp.45-64.
  • LeDuc, L., Niemi, R. and Norris, P. (eds) (2010) Comparing Democracies 3: New Challenges in the Study of Elections and Voting (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage).
  • Lewis-Beck, M. and Stegmaier, M. (2007) ‘Economic Models of Voting’ in The Oxford Handbook of Political Behavior (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 518-37.
  • Lewis-Beck, M., Norpoth, H. and Jacoby, W. (2008) The American Voter Revisited (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press).
  • Lijphart, A. (1979) ‘Religious vs Linguistic vs Class Voting: The Crucial Experiment of Comparing Belgium, Canada, South Africa and Switzerland’, American Political Science Review (73) 442-58.
  • McCaughan, M. (2004) The Battle of Venezuela (London: Latin America Bureau).
  • Norpoth, H. (1992) Confidence Regained: Economics, Mrs Thatcher, and the British Voter (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press).
  • Norris, P. and Inglehart, R. (2011) Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide, 2nd edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Ohr, D. and Oscarsson, H. (2011) ‘Leader Traits, Leader Image, and Vote Choice’, in Political Leaders and Democratic Elections, ed. K. Aarts, A. Blais and H. Schmitt (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 187-219.
  • Pulzer, P. (1967) Political Representation and Elections in Britain (London: George Allen & Unwin).
  • Rose, R. and Urwin, D. (1969) ‘Social Cohesion, Political Parties and Strains in Regimes’, Comparative Political Studies (2) 7-67.
  • Sanders, D., Ward H., Marsh, D. and Fletcher, T. (1987) ‘Government Popularity and the Falklands War: A Reassessment’, British Journal of Political Science (18) 281-313.
  • Smilde, D. and Hellinger, D. (eds) (2011) Venezuela’s Bolivarian Democracy: Participation, Politics and Culture under Chávez (Durham, NC: Duke University Press).
  • Stokes, D. (1966) ‘Some Dynamic Elements of Contests for the Presidency’, American Political Science Review (60) 19-28.
  • Wattenberg, M. (2000) ‘The Decline of Party Mobilization’, in Parties without Partisans, ed. R. Dalton and M. Wattenberg (New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 64–76.
  • Wattenberg, M. (2011) ‘US Party Leaders: Exploring the Meaning of Candidate-Centred Politics’ in Political Leaders and Democratic Elections, ed. K. Aarts, A. Blais and H. Schmitt (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 76-90.

Chapter Thirteen: Constitutions And The Legal Framework

  • Alter, K. (2008) ‘The European Court and Legal Integration: An Exceptional Story or Harbinger of the Future?’ in The Oxford Handbook of Law and Politics, ed. K. Whittington, R. Kelemen and G. Caldeira (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 209–28.
  • Alter, K. (2009) The European Court’s Political Power: Selected Essays (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Banks, C. and O’Brien, D. (2007) Courts and Judicial Policymaking (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall).
  • Baum, L. (2003) The Supreme Court, 7th edn (Washington, DC: CQ Press).
  • Berman, P. (2007) ‘Global Legal Pluralism’, Southern California Law Review (80) 1155-1238.
  • Bonneau, C. and Hall, M. (2009) In Defense of Judicial Elections (New York and London: Routledge).
  • Bork, R. (2003) Coercing Virtue: The Worldwide Rule of Judges (Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute).
  • Buhlungu, S. et al. (eds) State of the Nation: South Africa, 2005-06 (East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press).
  • Bull, H. (1977) The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
  • Bustamante, E. (2000) ‘Spain’s Interventionist and Authoritarian Communication Policy: Telefónica as a Political Battering Ram of the Spanish Right’, Media, Culture & Society (22) 433-55.
  • Butler, A. (2004) Contemporary South Africa (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave).
  • Calleros-Alarcón (2008) The Unfinished Transition to Democracy in Latin America (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Carothers, T. (ed.) (2006) Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad: In Search of Knowledge (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace).
  • Conradt, D. (2008) The German Polity, 9th edn (New York: Longman).
  • Davis, R. (2005) Electing Justice: Fixing the Supreme Court Nomination Process (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • de Burea, G. and Weiler, J. (eds) (2002) The European Court of Justice (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • de Tocqueville, A. (1856) [1954 edn] The Ancien Regime and the Revolution in France (London: Fontana).
  • Derbyshire, J. and Derbyshire, L. (1999) Political Systems of the World (Oxford: Helicon).
  • Dehousse, R. (1998) The European Court of Justice (London: Macmillan)
  • Dempsey, J. (2002) ‘Civil Liberties in a Time of Crisis’, Human Rights (29) 8-10.
  • Deegan, H. (2001) The Politics of the New South Africa: Apartheid and After (Harlow and New York: Longman).
  • Dicey, A. (1885) [1959 edn] Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, 10th edn (London: Macmillan).
  • Dodson, M. and Jackson, D. (2003) ‘Horizontal Accountability and the Rule of Law in Central America’, in Democratic Accountability in Latin America, ed. S. Mainwaring and C. Welna (Oxford and New York) pp. 228-65.
  • Duchacek, I. (1991) ‘Constitutions/Constitutionalism’, in The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Science, ed. V. Bogdanor (Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell) pp. 142-4.
  • Dworkin, R. (1977) Taking Rights Seriously (Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press).
  • Ferejohn, J. and Pasquino, P. (2003) ‘Rule of Democracy and Rule of Law’, in Democracy and the Rule of Law, ed. J. Maravall and A. Przeworski (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 242-60.
  • Finer, S. (1997) The History of Government from the Earliest Times, 3 vols (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Friedrich, C. (1937) Constitutional Government and Politics (New York: Harper).
  • Fuller, L. (1969) The Morality of Law (New Haven and London: Yale University Press).
  • Ginsburg, R. (1992) [2004 edn] ‘Speaking in a Judicial Voice: Reflections on Roe v. Wade’, in Judges on Judging: Views from the Bench, ed. D. O’Brien (Washington, DC: CQ Press) pp. 194-200.
  • Glaser, D. (2001) Politics and Society in South Africa (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage).
  • Graber, M. (2008) ‘Constitutional Law and American Politics’ in The Oxford Handbook of Law and Politics, ed. K. Whittington, R. Kelemen and G. Caldeira (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 300–20.
  • Griffiths, J. (1986), ‘What is Legal Pluralism?’, Journal of Legal Pluralism (24) 1-55.
  • Guarnieri, C. (2003) ‘Courts as an Instrument of Horizontal Accountability: The Case of Latin Europe’, in Democracy and the Rule of Law, ed. J. Maravall and A. Przeworski (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 223-41.
  • Guarnieri, C. and Pederzoli, P. (2002) The Power of Judges: A Comparative Study of Courts and Democracy, trans. C. Thomas (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Hall, D. (2005) Administrative Law: Bureaucracy in a Democracy, 3rd edn (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall).
  • Hamilton, A. (1788) [1970 edn] The Federalist, No. 84, intro W. Brock (London: Dent and New York: Dutton) pp. 436-45.
  • Hartley, T. (2010) The Foundations of European Law, 7th edn (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
  • Held, D. (2004) Global Covenant: The Social Democratic Alternative to the Washington Consensus (Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity).
  • Hirschl, R. (2002) ‘The Political Origins of Judicial Empowerment through Constitutionalization: Lessons from Israel’s Constitutional Review’, Comparative Politics (33) 315-35.
  • Hirschl, R. (2004) Towards Juristocracy: The Origins and Consequences of the New Constitutionalism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
  • Hirschl, R. (2008) ‘The Judicalization of Politics’ in The Oxford Handbook of Law and Politics, ed. K. Whittington, R. Kelemen and G. Caldeira (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 119–41.
  • Holland, K. (1991) ‘Introduction’, in Judicial Activism in Comparative Perspective, ed. K. Holland (Basingstoke: Macmillan) pp. 1-11.
  • Horowitz, D. (2002) ‘Constitutional Design: Proposals versus Processes’, in The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management and Democracy (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 15-36.
  • Horowitz, D. (2006) ‘Constitutional Courts: Primer for Decision-Makers’, Journal of Democracy (17) 125-37.
  • Hughes, C. (1916) Addresses of Charles Evans Hughes (New York: Putnam’s) pp. 185-6.
  • Inoguchi, T. (2002) ‘Broadening the Basis of Political Capital in Japan’, in Democracies in Flux: The Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society, ed. R. Putnam (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 359-92.
  • Johnston, R. (2009) South Africa’s Brave New World: The Beloved Country Since the End of Apartheid (London: Allen Lane).
  • Kelsen, H. (1942) ‘Judicial Review of Legislation: A Comparative Study of the Austrian and the American Constitution’, Journal of Politics (4) 183-200.
  • Kleinfeld, R. (2006) ‘Competing Definitions of the Rule of Law’, in Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad: In Search of Knowledge, ed. T. Carothers (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace) pp. 31-74.
  • Kommers, D. (2006) ‘The Federal Constitutional Court: Guardian of German Democracy’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (603) 111-28.
  • Kühn, Z. (2006) ‘The Judicialization of European Politics’, in Developments in European Politics, ed. P. Heywood et al. (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 216-36.
  • Liebman, B. (2007) ‘China’s Courts: Restricted Reform’, China Quarterly (191) 620-38.
  • Loveland, I. (2004) Constitutional Law, Administrative Law and Human Rights: A Critical Introduction, 3rd edn (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Lubman, S. (1999) Bird in a Cage: Legal Reform in China after Mao (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
  • Lutz, D. (2007) Principles of Constitutional Design (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Maddex, R. (2007) Constitutions of the World, 3rd edn (Washington, DC and London: CQ Press).
  • Marshall, T. (1987) [2004 edn] ‘The Constitution: A Living Document’, in Judges on Judging: Views from the Bench, ed. D. O’Brien (Washington, DC: CQ Press) pp. 178-82.
  • Mason, A. (1993) ‘The Role of the Courts at the Turn of the Century’, Journal of Judicial Administration (3) 12-18.
  • Mason, R. (2006) ‘The Media’ in Developments in American Politics 5, ed. G Reele et al. (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 165-81.
  • McEldowney, J. (2003) ‘Administrative Law’, in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, 2nd edn, ed. I. McLean and A. Macmillan (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) p. 3.
  • Melissaris, E. (2009) Ubiquitous Justice: Legal Theory and the Space for Legal Pluralism (Farnham: Ashgate).
  • Mitra, S. (2011) Politics in India: Structure, Process and Policy (Abingdon: Routledge).
  • Mitra, S. (2012) ‘Politics in India’ in Comparative Politics Today, 10th edn, ed. G. Bingham, Powell, R. Dalton and K. Strøm (Glenview, IL: Pearson) pp. 568–615).
  • Nugent, N. (2010) The Government and Politics of the European Union, 7th edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • O’Brien, D. (ed.) (2008) Judges on Judging: Views from the Bench, 3rd edn (Washington, DC: CQ Press).
  • O’Brien, D. (2008) Storm Center: The Supreme Court in American Politics, 8th edn (New York: Norton).
  • O’Donnell, G. (1994) ‘Delegative Democracy’, Journal of Democracy (5) 55-69.
  • O’Donnell, G. (2003) ‘Horizontal Accountability: The Legal Institutionalization of Mistrust’, in Democratic Accountability in Latin America, ed. S. Mainwaring and C. Welna (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 54.
  • Peerenboom, R. (2002) China’s Long March toward Rule of Law (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Peretti, T. (2001) In Defence of a Political Court (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
  • Pierce, J. (2007) Inside the Mason Court Revolution: The High Court of Australia Transformed (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press).
  • Prillaman, W. (2000) The Judiciary and Democratic Decay in Latin America: Declining Confidence in the Rule of Law (Westport, CT: Praeger).
  • Rahman, F. (1982) Islam and Modernity: Transformation of an Intellectual Tradition (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press).
  • Riches, W. (2010) The Civil Rights Movement: Struggle and Resistance, 3rd edn (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Rodriguez, D. (2008) ‘Administrative Law’ in The Oxford Handbook of Law and Politics, ed. K. Whittington, R. Kelemen and G. Caldeira (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 340–59.
  • Sadurski, W. (2005) Rights before Courts: A Study of Constitutional Courts in Postcommunist States of Central and Eastern Europe (Dordrecht: Springer).
  • Sartori, G. (1994) Comparative Constitutional Engineering: An Inquiry into Structures, Incentives and Outcomes (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
  • Schabas, W. (2007) An Introduction to the International Criminal Court, 2nd edn (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Scott, S. (1997) ‘Australia and International Institutions’, in New Developments in Australian Politics, ed. B. Galligan, I. McAllister and J. Ravenhill (South Melbourne: Macmillan) pp. 271-90.
  • Segal, J. and Spaeth, H. (2002) The Supreme Court and the Attitudinal Model Revisited (New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Shah, P. (2005) Legal Pluralism in Law: Coping with Cultural Diversity in Law (London and New York: Routledge Cavendish).
  • Sharlet, R. (1997) ‘The Progress of Human Rights’, in Developments in Russian Politics 4, ed. S. White, A. Pravda and Z. Gitelman (Basingstoke: Macmillan) pp. 129-48.
  • Sharlet, R. (2005) ‘In Search of the Rule of Law’, in Developments in Russian Politics 6, ed. S. White, Z. Gitelman and R. Sakwa (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 130-47.
  • Shapiro, M. (1987) ‘Review of Rasmussen’s “On Law and Policy in the European Court of Justice: A Comparative Study in Judicial Policy-making”’, American Journal of International Law (81) 1007-11.
  • Shapiro, M. and Stone Sweet, A. (2002) On Law, Politics and Judicialization (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Smith, G. (2010) ‘Legal Reform and the Dilemma of Rule of Law’ in Developments in Russian Politics 7, ed. S. White, R. Sakwa and H. Hale (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 135–51.
  • Solomon, P. (2007) ‘Courts and Judges in Authoritarian Regimes’, World Politics (60) 122-45.
  • Sparks, A. (2009) Beyond the Miracle: Inside the New South Africa (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
  • Spiller, P. and Gely, R. (2008) ‘Strategic Judicial Decision-Making’ in The Oxford Handbook of Law and Politics, ed. K. Whittington, R. Kelemen and G. Caldeira (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 34–45.
  • Stone Sweet, A. (2000) Governing with Judges: Constitutional Politics in Europe (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Stone Sweet, A. (2002) ‘Constitutional Courts and Parliamentary Democracy, West European Politics (25) 77-110.
  • Sunstein, C. et al. (2006) Are Judges Political? An Empirical Analysis of the Federal Judiciary (Washington, DC: Brookings).
  • Van Geffen, S. (2001) The Court Rules: Modelling and Testing Supreme Court Influence on Policy (Assen: Van Gorcum).
  • von Beyme, K. (2003) ‘Constitutional Engineering in Central and Eastern Europe’, in Developments in Central and East European Politics 3, ed. S. White, J. Batt and P. Lewis (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 190-210.
  • Waldron, J. (2007) Law and Disagreement (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Weaver, R. and Rockman, B. (eds) (1993) Do Institutions Matter? Government Capabilities in the United States and Abroad (Washington: The Brookings Institution).
  • Weiler, J. (1994) ‘A Quiet Revolution: The European Court of Justice and its Interlocutors’, Comparative Political Studies (26) 519-34.
  • Whittington, K., Kelemen, R. and Caldeira, G. (eds) (2008) The Oxford Handbook of Law and Politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Worger, W. and Clark, N. (2003) The Rise and Fall of Apartheid (Harlow, Longman).


Chapter Fourteen: Multilevel Governance

  • Albritton, R. (2006) ‘American Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations’, in Developments in American politics 5, ed. G. Peele et al. (New York and Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 124-45.
  • Bache, I. and Flinders, M. (eds) (2004) Multilevel Governance (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Bakvis, H. and Skogstad, G. (eds) (2002) Canadian Federalism: Performance, Effectiveness and Legitimacy (Don Mills, Ontario and Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Balme, R. (1998) ‘The French Region as a Space for Public Policy’, in Regions in Europe, ed. P. Le Galès and C. Lequesne (London and New York: Routledge) pp. 181-98.
  • Bardes, B., Shelley, M. and Schmidt, S. (2006) American Government and Politics: The Essentials, 2006-2007 edn (Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth).
  • Benz, A. and Broschek, J. (eds) (2012) Federal Dynamics: Continuity, Change and the Varieties of Federalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Bhattacharyya, H. (2009) Federalism in Asia: India, Pakistan and Malaysia (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Bickerton, J. and Gagnon, A..-G. (eds) (2004) Canadian Politics, 4th edition (Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press).
  • Bickerton, J. and Gagnon, A.-G. (2011) ‘Regions’, in Comparative Politics, 2nd edn, ed. D. Caramani (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 275–91.
  • Bjørna, A. and Jennsen, S. (2006) ‘Prefectural Systems and Central-Local Government Relationships in Scandinavia’, Scandinavian Political Studies (29) 308-32.
  • Bogason, P. (1996) ‘The Fragmentation of Local Government in Scandinavia’, European Journal of Political Research (30) 65-86.
  • Bourne, A. (2003) ‘Regional Europe’, in European Union Politics, ed. M. Cini (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 278-93.
  • Bowles, N. (1998) Government and Politics of the United States, 2nd edn (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
  • Brans, M., De Winter, L. and Swenden, W. (eds) (2009) The Politics of Belgium: Institutions and Policy Under Bipolar and Centrifugal Federalism (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Braun, D. et al. (2003) Fiscal Policies in Federal States (Aldershot and Burlington, VT: Ashgate).
  • Brooks, S. (2012) Canadian Democracy: An Introduction, 7th edn (Don Mills, Ontario and Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Bryce, J. (1888) The American Commonwealth, Vol. 1 (London: Macmillan).
  • Bryce, J. (1919) The American Commonwealth, Vol. 1 (London: Macmillan).
  • Bull, M. and Newell, J. (2005) Italian Politics: Adjustment under Duress (Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity).
  • Burgess, M. (2000) Federalism and European Union: The Building of Europe, 1950-2000 (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Burgess, M. (2001) ‘Competing National Visions: Canada-Quebec Relations in a Comparative Perspective’, in Multi­national Democracies, ed. A.-G. Gagnon and J. Tully (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 257-74.
  • Burgess, M. (2003) ‘Federalism and Federation’, in European Union Politics, ed. M. Cini (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 65-79.
  • Burgess, M. (2006) Comparative Federalism: Theory and Practice (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Burgess, M. (2012) In Search of the Federal Spirit: New Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives in Comparative Federalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Bush, G. (2005) ‘New Zealand: A Quantum Leap Forward?’, in Comparing Local Governance: Trends and Developments, ed. B. Denters and L. Rose (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 174-92.
  • Denters, B. and Klok, P. J. (2005) ‘The Netherlands: In Search of Responsiveness’, in Comparing Local Governance: Trends and Developments, ed. B. Denters and L. Rose (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 65-82.
  • Denters, B. and Rose, L. (eds) (2005) Comparing Local Governance: Trends and Developments (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Deschouwer, K. (2005) ‘The Unintended Consequences of Consociational Federalism: The Case of Belgium’, in Power Sharing: New Challenges for Divided Societies, ed. I. O’Flynn and D. Russell (London and Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press) pp. 92-106.
  • Deschouwer, K. (2012) The Politics of Belgium: Governing a Divided Society, 2nd edn (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Dollery, B., Garcea, J. and LeSage Jr, E. (eds) (2008) Local Government Reform: A Comparative Analysis of Advanced Anglo-American Countries (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Elazar, D. (1990) ‘Opening the Third Century of American Federalism: Issues and Prospects’, The Annals (509) 11-21.
  • Elazar, D. (1996) ‘From Statism to Federalism: A Paradigm Shift’, International Political Science Review (17) 417-30.
  • Ellner, S. (2004) ‘The Search for Explanations’, in Venezuelan Politics in the Chávez Era: Class, Polarization and Conflict, ed. S. Ellner and D. Hellinger (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner) pp. 7-26.
  • Forsyth, M. (1996) ‘The Political Theory of Federalism: The Relevance of Classical Approaches’, in Federalizing Europe: The Costs, Benefits and Preconditions of Federal Political Systems, ed. J. Hesse and V. Wright (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 47-64.
  • Gagnon, A. G. and Tully, J. (eds) (2001) Multinational Democracies (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Galligan, B. (2006) ‘Comparative Federalism’, in The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions, ed. R. Rhodes, S. Binder and B. Rockman (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 261-80.
  • Gibson, E. (ed.) (2004) Federalism and Democracy in Latin America (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press).
  • Gleeson, B. and Steele, W. (2012) ‘Cities’ in Contemporary Politics in Australia: Theories, Practices and Issues, ed. R. Smith, A. Vromen and I. Cook (Melbourne: Cambridge University Press) pp. 320–31.
  • Goldsmith, M. (1996) ‘Normative Theories of Local Government: A European Survey’, in Rethinking Local Democracy, ed. D. King and G. Stoker (Basingstoke and New York: Macmillan).
  • Gunlicks, A. (2003) The Länder and German Federalism (Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press).
  • Hahn, G. (2006) ‘Reforming the Federation’, in Developments in Russian Politics, ed. S White, Z. Gitelman and R. Sakwa (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 148-67.
  • Hueglin, T. and Fenna, A. (2006) Comparative Federalism: A Systematic Inquiry (Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press).
  • Hooghe, L. and Marks, G. (2001) Multilevel Governance and European Integration (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield).
  • Hooghe, L., Marks, G. and Schakel, A. (2010) The Rise of Regional Authority: A Comparative Study of 42 Democracies (Abingdon: Routledge).
  • Inwood, G. (2012) Understanding Canadian Federalism: An Introduction to Theory and Practice (Don Mills, Ontario: Pearson Education Canada).
  • Jay, A. (1996) The Oxford Dictionary of Political Quotations (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • John, P. (2001) Local Governance in Western Europe (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage).
  • Kahn, J. (2002) Federalism, Democratization and the Rule of Law in Russia (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Karmis, D. and Norman, W. (eds) (2005) Theories of Federalism: A Reader (New York and Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Kavalski, E. and Zolkos, M. (eds) (2008) Defunct Federalisms: Critical Perspectives on Federal Failure (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Keating, M. (2008) ’30 Years of Territorial Politics’, West European Politics (31) 60-81.
  • Landes, R. (2002) The Canadian Polity: A Comparative Introduction, 6th edn(Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice Hall Canada).
  • Le Galés, P. (2008) ‘Territorial Politics in France’ in Developments in French Politics 4, ed. A Cole, P. Le Galés and J. Levy (Basingstoke and New York) pp. 156-71.
  • Loughlin, J. (2001) Subnational Democracy in the European Union: Challenges and Opportunities (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Loughlin, J., Hendriks, F. and Lidström, A. (eds) (2011) The Oxford Handbook of Local and Regional Democracy in Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • McKay, D. (2001) Designing Europe: Comparative Lessons from the European Experience (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Menon, A. and Schain, M. (eds) (2006) Comparative Federalism: The European Union and the United States in Comparative Perspective (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Mouritzen, P. and Svara, J. (2002) Leadership at the Apex: Politicians and Administrators in Western Local Governments (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press).
  • Norton, A. (1991) ‘Western European Local Government in Comparative Perspective’, in Local Government in Europe: Trends and Developments, ed. R. Batley and G. Stoker (Basingstoke: Macmillan) pp. 21-40.
  • Nugent, N. (2010) The Government and Politics of the European Union, 7th edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Pierre, J. (2011) The Politics of Urban Governance (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Riker, W. (1975) ‘Federalism’, in The Handbook of Political Science, Vol. 5, ed. F. Greenstein and N. Polsby (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley) pp. 93-172.
  • Riker, W. (1996) ‘European Federalism: The Lessons of Past Experience’, in Federalizing Europe? The Costs, Benefits and Preconditions of Federal Political Systems, ed. J. Hesse and V. Wright (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 9-24.
  • Romero, A. (1997) ‘Rearranging the Deck Chairs on the Titanic: The Agony of Democracy in Venezuela’, Latin America Research Review (32) 7-36.
  • Rose, L. (2004) ‘Local Government and Politics’, in Nordic Politics: Comparative Perspectives, ed. K. Heidar (Oslo: Universitetforlaget) pp. 164-82.
  • Ross, C. (2010) ‘Reforming the Federation’ in Developments in Russian Politics 7, ed. S. White, R. Sakwa and H. Hale (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 152–70.
  • Ross, C. and Campbell, A. (eds) (2008) Federalism and Local Politics in Russia (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Rubin, E. and Feeley, M. (2008) ‘Federalism and Internationalism’, Publius (38) 167-191.
  • Saich, A. (2011) Governance and Politics of China, 3rd edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave).
  • Simeon, R. (2002) ‘Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations’, in The Handbook of Canadian Public Administration, ed. C. Dunn (Don Mills, Ontario: Oxford University Press) pp. 204-24.
  • Stepan, A. (2001) Arguing Comparative Politics (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Stevens, A. (2003) Government and Politics of France, 3rd edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Stevenson, G. (2009) Unfulfilled Union: Canadian Federalism and National Unity, 5th edn (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press).
  • Sweating, D. (2003) ‘How Strong Is the Mayor of London?’ Policy and Politics (31) 465-78.
  • Teune, H. (1995) ‘Local Government and Democratic Political Development’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences (540) 11-23.
  • Umbach, M. (ed.) (2002) German Federalism: Past, Present, Future (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
  • Warleigh, A. (1998) ‘Better The Devil You Know? Synthetic and Confederal Understandings of European Integration’, West European Politics (21) 1-18.
  • Watts, R. (2005) ‘Comparing Forms of Federal Partnerships’, in Theories of Federalism: A Reader, ed. D. Karmis and W. Norman (New York and Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 233-54.
  • Wiener, A. and Diez, T. (eds) (2004) European Integration Theory (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Winter, L. and Brans, M. (2003) ‘Belgium: Political professionals and the Crisis of the Party State’, in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies, ed. J. Borchert and J. Zeiss (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 45-66.

Chapter Fifteen: Legislatures

  • Alonso, S. and Ruiz-Rufino, R. (2007) ‘Political Representation and Ethnic Conflict in New Democracies’, European Journal of Political Research (46) 237-67.
  • Arter, D. (2003) ‘Committee Cohesion and the “Corporate Dimension” of Parliamentary Committees: A Comparative Analysis’, Journal of Legislative Studies (9) 73-87.
  • Bagehot, W. (1867) [1963 edn] The English Constitution (London: Fontana).
  • Baldwin, N. (2012) Legislatures of Small States: A Comparative Study (Abingdon: Routledge).
  • Berry, W., Berkman, M. and Schneiderman, S. (2000) ‘Legislative professionalism and incumbent reelection: the development of institutional boundaries’, American Political Science Review (94) 859-74.
  • Best, H. and Cotta, M. (2000) Parliamentary Representatives in Europe, 1848-2000 (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Blondel, J. (1973) Comparative Legislatures (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall).
  • Bogdanor, V. (2009) The New British Constitution (London: Hart).
  • Borchert, J. and Copeland, G. (2003) ‘United States: A Political Class of Entrepreneurs’, in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies, ed. J. Borchert and J. Zeiss (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 393-415.
  • Borchert, J. and Zeiss, J. (eds) (2003) The Political Class in Advanced Democracies (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Bryce, J. (1921) Modern Democracies, Vol. 2 (New York: Macmillan).
  • Burke, E. (1774) [1975 edn] ‘Speech to the Electors of Bristol’, in Edmund Burke on Government, Politics and Society, ed. B. Hill (London: Fontana) pp. 156-8.
  • Carey, J. (1998) Term Limits and Legislative Representation (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Carey, J. (2006) ‘Legislative Organization’, in The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions, ed. R. Rhodes, S. Binder and B. Rockman (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 431-54.
  • Carey, J. et al. (2006) ‘The Effects of Term Limits on State Legislatures: A New Survey of the 50 States’, Legislative Studies Quarterly (31) 105–34.
  • Chalmers, D. (1990) Dilemmas of Latin American Democratization: Dealing with International Forces, Papers on Latin America, No. 18 (New York: Columbia University Institute of Latin American and Iberian Studies).
  • Chen, J. and Malhotra, N. (2007) ‘The Law of 1/n: The Effect of Chamber Size on Government Spending in Bicameral Legislatures’, American Political Science Review (101) 657-76.
  • Corbett, R., Jacobs, F. and Shackleton, M. (2011) The European Parliament, 8th edn (London: John Harper).
  • Corner, J. and Pels, D. (eds) (2003) Media and the Restyling of Politics: Consumerism, Celebrity, Cynicism (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage).
  • Cotta, M. and Best, H. (eds) (2007) Democratic Representation in Europe: Diversity, Change and Convergence (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Cowley, P. (2006) ‘Making Parliament Matter?’, in Developments in British Politics 8, ed. P. Dunleavy et al. (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 65-55.
  • Davidson, R. (2009) Congress and its Members, 12th edn (Washington, DC: CQ Press).
  • Derichs, C. and Kerbo, H. (2003) ‘Japan: Political Careers between Bureaucracy and Hereditary Constituencies’, in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies, ed. J. Borchert and J. Zeiss (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 245-58.
  • Diamond, L. (1999) Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation (Baltimore, MD and London: Johns Hopkins University Press).
  • Dodd, L. and Oppenheimer, B. (eds) (2012) Congress Reconsidered, 10th edn (Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press).
  • Donaldson, R. (2004) ‘Russia’, Journal of Legislative Studies (10) 230-49.
  • Dunleavy, P. et al. (eds) (2006)Developments in British Politics 8 (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Eigen, L. and Siegel, J. (1993) The Macmillan Dictionary of Political Quotations (New York: Macmillan).
  • Fish, S. and Kroenig, M. (2009) The Handbook of National Legislatures: A Global Survey (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Flammang, J. et al. (1990) American Politics in a Changing World (Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole).
  • Gandhi, J. (2008) Political Institutions Under Dictatorship (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Hagevi, M. (2003) ‘Sweden: Participation Ideal and Professionalism’, in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies, ed. J. Borchert and J. Zeiss (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 352-73.
  • Hamilton, A. (1788) [1970 edn] The Federalist, No. 51, intro W. Brock (London: Dent and New York: Dutton) pp. 263-7.
  • Hamilton, A. (1788) [1970 edn] The Federalist, No. 62, intro W. Brock (London: Dent and New York: Dutton) pp. 314-20.
  • Hayward, J. (2004) ‘Parliament and the French Government’s Domination of the Legislative Process’, Journal of Legislative Studies (10) 79-97.
  • Heffernan, R., Cowley, P. and Hay, C. (eds) (2011) Developments in British Politics 9, (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Ilonski, G. and Edinger, M. (2007) ‘MPs in Post-Communist and Post-Soviet Nations: A Parliamentary Elite in the Making’, Journal of Legislative Studies (13) 142-63.
  • Jackson, K. (1994) ‘Stability and Renewal: Incumbency and Parliamentary Composition’, in The Victorious Incumbent: A Threat to Democracy? ed. A. Somit et al. (Aldershot and Brookfield, VT: Dartmouth) pp. 251-77.
  • Jones, J. (2005) Entertaining Politics: New Political Television and Civic Culture (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield).
  • Judge, D. and Earnshaw, D. (2003) The European Parliament (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Kavanagh, D. and Butler, D. (2005) The British General Election of 2005 (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Kavanagh, D. and Cowley, D. (2010) The British General Election of 2010 (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Kerrouche, F. (2010) ‘The French Assemblée Nationale: The Case of a Weak Legislature’, Journal of Legislative Studies (12) 336-65.
  • King, A. (2009) The British Constitution (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Kramnick, I. (1978) ‘Editor’s Introduction’ in J. Madison, A. Hamilton and J. Jay, The Federalist Papers (London: Penguin) pp. 11-81.
  • Lijphart, A. (1999) Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty Six Countries (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press).
  • Lively, J. (1991) ‘Sieyes, Emmanuel Joseph’, in The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought, ed. D. Miller (Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell) pp. 475-6.
  • Locke, J. (1690) [1970 edn] Two Treatises of Government, ed. P. Laslett (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Loewenberg, G., Squire, P. and Kiewit, D. (eds) (2002) Legislatures: Comparative Perspectives on Representative Assemblies (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press).
  • Longley, L. and Davidson, R. (eds) (1998) The New Roles of Parliamentary Committees (London: Frank Cass).
  • Mahler, G. (2007) Comparative Politics: An Institutional and Cross-National Approach, 5th edn (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson).
  • Martin, S. and Steel, G. (eds) (2008) Democratic Reform in Japan: Assessing the Impact (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner).
  • Matland, R. and Studlar, D. (2004) ‘Determinants of Legislative Turnover: A Cross-National Analysis’, British Journal of Political Science (34) 87-108.
  • McAllister, I. (2003) ‘Australia: Party Politicians as a Political Class’, in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies, ed. J. Borchert and J. Zeiss (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 26-44.
  • Mill, J. S. (1861) [1972 edn] Considerations on Representative Government, ed. H. Acton (London: Dent).
  • Moran, M. (2011) Politics and Governance in the UK, 2nd edn (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan)
  • Mosca, G. (1896) [1939 edn] The Ruling Class (New York: McGraw-Hill).
  • Morgenstern, S. (2012) Patterns of Legislative Politics: Roll-Call Voting in Latin America and the United States (New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Mosca, G. (1896) [1939 edn] The Ruling Class (New York: McGraw-Hill).
  • Nijzink, L., Mozaffar, S. and Azevedo, E. (2000) ‘Parliament and the Enhancement of Democracy on the African Continent: An Analysis of Institutional Capacity and Public Perceptions’, Journal of Legislative Studies (12) 311-35.
  • Nugent, N. (2010) The Government and Politics of the European Union, 7th edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Norris, P. (1996) ‘Legislative Recruitment’, in Elections and Voting in Global Perspective, ed. R. Niemi and P. Norris (Thousand Oaks, CA and London: Sage) pp. 184-215.
  • Norton, P. (1997) ‘Parliamentary Oversight’, in Developments in British Politics 5, ed. P. Dunleavy et al. (Basingstoke: Macmillan, and New York: St Martin’s) pp. 155-76.
  • Norton, P. (2005) Parliament in Britain (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).Nugent,
  • Norton, P. (ed.) (1990) Legislatures (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Norton, P. (ed.) (1998) Parliaments and Governments in Western Europe (London and Portland, OR: Frank Cass).
  • Nugent, N. (2006) The Government and Politics of the European Union, 6th edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • O’Brien, K. (2008) Reform without Liberalization: China’s National People’s Congress and the Politics of Institutional Change (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Olson, D. (1994) Legislative Institutions: A Comparative View (New York: M.E. Sharpe).
  • Patterson, S. and Mughan, A. (eds) (1999) Senates: Bicameralism in the Contemporary World (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press).
  • Petersson, O. (1989) Maktens Natverk (Stockholm: Carlssons).
  • Phillips, A. (1995) The Politics of Presence (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Remington, T. (2006) ‘Parliamentary Politics in Russia’, in Developments in Russian Politics 6, ed. S. White, Z. Gitelman and R. Sakwa (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 40-60.
  • Rose, R. (1989) Politics in England: Change and Persistence (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
  • Rush, M. (2005) Parliament Today (Manchester: Manchester University Press).
  • Russell, M. (2000) Reforming the House of Lords: Lessons from Overseas (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Russell, M. (2001) ‘What Are Second Chambers For?’, Parliamentary Affairs (54) 442-58.
  • Schmidt, S., Shelley, M., Bardes, B. and Ford, L. (2012) American Government and Politics Today, 2011–12 edn (Boston, MA: Wadsworth).
  • Sjolin, M. (1993) Coalition Politics and Parliamentary Power (Lund: Lund University Press).
  • Tsebelis, G. and Money, J. (1997) Bicameralism (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Uhr, J. (2006) ‘Bicameralism’, in The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions, ed. R. Rhodes, S. Binder and B. Rockman (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 474-94.
  • Walpole, S. (1881) The Electorate and the Legislature (London: Macmillan).
  • Weber, M. (1918) [1990 edn] ‘The Advent of Plebiscitarian Democracy’, in The West European Party System, ed. P. Mair (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 31-7. First pub. 1918.
  • Wehner, J. (2006) ‘Assessing the Power of the Purse: An Index of Legislative Budget Institutions’, Political Studies (54) 767-85.
  • West, D. and Orman, J. (2002) Celebrity Politics (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall).
  • Wilson, W. (1885) Congressional Government (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin).

Chapter Sixteen: The Political Executive

  • Ames, B. (2002) ‘Party Discipline in the Chamber of Deputies’, in Legislative Politics in Latin America, ed. S. Morgenstern and B. Nacif (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 185-221.
  • Andrews, J. and Momtinola, G. (2004) ‘Veto Players and the Rule of Law in Emerging Democracies’, Comparative Political Studies (37) 55-87.
  • Bagehot, W. (1867) [1963 edn] The English Constitution (London: Fontana).
  • Bale, T. and Bergman, T. (2006) ‘Captives No Longer, But Servants Still? Contrast Parliamentarianism and the New Minority Governance in Sweden and New Zealand’, Government and Opposition (41) 422-49.
  • Baylis, T. (2007) ‘Embattled Executives: Prime Ministerial Weakness in East Central Europe’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies (40) 81-106.
  • Bergman, T. (2000) ‘Sweden: When Minority Cabinets Are the Rule and Majority Coalitions the Exception’, in Coalition Governments in Western Europe, ed. W. Müller and K. Strøm (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 192-230.
  • Bevir, M. and Rhodes, R. (2006) ‘Prime Ministers, Presidentialism and Westminster Smokescreens’, Political Studies (54) 671-90.
  • Brooker, P. (1995) Twentieth-Century Dictatorships: The Ideological One-Party States (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
  • Brooker, P. (2009) Non-Democratic Regimes: Theory, Government and Politics, 2nd edn (Basingstoke: Macmillan, and New York: St Martin’s Press).
  • Burke, J. (2010) ‘The Institutional Presidency’, in The Presidency and the Political System, 9th edn, ed. M. Nelson (Washington DC: CQ Press) pp. 341-66.
  • Cameron, M., Blanaru, A.-M. and Burns, L. (2004) Constitutional Frameworks and the Rule of Law: Stepan and Skatch on Parliamentarism versus Presidentialism (University of Pennsylvania: Penn Comparative Politics Workshop) Accessed October 14, 2006.
  • Cheibub, J. (2002) ‘Minority Governments, Deadlock Situations and the Survival of Presidential Democracies’, Comparative Political Studies (35) 284-312.
  • Cole, A., Le Gales, P. and Levy, J. (eds) (2005) Developments in French Politics 3 (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Cox, G. and Morgenstern, S. (2002) ‘Latin America’s Reactive Assemblies and Proactive Presidents’, in Legislative Politics in Latin America, ed. S. Morgenstern and B. Nacif (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 446-68.
  • Cronin, T. and Genovese, M. (2012) The Paradoxes of the American Presidency, 4th edn (New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Dahl, R. (2001) How Democratic is the American Constitution? (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press).
  • Deschouwer, K. (2012) The Politics of Belgium: Governing a Divided Society, 2nd edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Dowding, K. and Dumont, P. (eds) (2008) The Selection of Ministers in Europe: Hiring and Firing (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Duverger, M. (1980) ‘A New Political System Model: Semi-Presidential Government’, European Journal of Political Research (8) 165-87.
  • Easter, G. (1997) ‘Preference for Presidentialism: Postcommunist Regime Change in Russia and the NIS’, World Politics (49) 184-211.
  • Egeberg, M. (2008) ‘European Government(s): Executive Politics in Transition’, West European Politics (31) 235-57.
  • Elgie, R. (ed.) (1999) Semi-Presidentialism in Europe (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Elgie, R. (ed) (2001) Divided Government in Comparative Perspective (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Elgie, R. (2005) ‘The Political Executive’, in Developments in French Politics 3, ed. A. Cole, P. le Galès and J. Levy (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 70-87.
  • Elgie, R. (2011) Semi-Presidentialism: Sub-Types and Democratic Performance (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Ellis, R. and Nelson, M. (eds) (2006) Debating the Presidency: Conflicting Perspectives on the American Executive (Washington, DC: CQ Press).
  • Fiers, S. and Krouwel, A. (2005) ‘The Low Countries: From “Prime Minister” to President-Minister’, in The Presidentialization of Politics: A Comparative Study of Modern Democracies, ed. T. Poguntke and P. Webb (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 128-58.
  • Gaffney, J. (2012) Political Leadership in France: From Charles de Gaulle to Nicolas Sarkozy (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Gallagher, M., Laver, M. and Mair, P.(2011) Representative Government in Modern Europe: Institutions, Parties, and Governments, 5th edn (New York and London: McGraw-Hill).
  • Godin, E. and Chafer, T. (eds) (2006) The French Exception (Oxford: Berghahn Books).
  • Golder, S. (2006) ‘Pre-Election Coalition Formation in Parliamentary Democracies’, British Journal of Political Science (36) 193-212.
  • Gould, D. (1980) ‘Patrons and Clients: The Role of the Military in Zaire Politics’, in The Performance of Soldiers as Governors, ed. I. Mowoe (Washington, DC: University Press of America) pp. 473-92.
  • Han, L. (ed.) (2011) New Directions in the American Presidency (New York: Routledge).
  • Hayward, J. (1994) ‘Ideological Change: The Exhaustion of the Revolutionary Impulse’, in Developments in French Politics, ed. P. Hall, J. Hayward and H. Machin (Basingstoke: Macmillan) pp. 15-32.
  • Hayward, J. and Wright, V. (2002) Governing from the Centre: Core Executive Coordination in France (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Hefferman, R. (2006) ‘The Blair Style of Central Government’, in Developments in British Politics 8, ed. P. Dunleavy et al. (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 20-35.
  • Helms, L. (2005) Presidents, Prime Ministers and Chancellors: Executive Leadership in Western Democracies (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Howell, W. (2005) ‘Unilateral Powers: A Brief Overview’, Presidential Studies Quarterly (35) 417-39.
  • Hyden, G. (2006) African Politics in Comparative Perspective (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Jackson, R. and Rosberg, C. (1982) Personal Rule in Black Africa: Prince, Autocrat, Prophet, Tyrant (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press).
  • Jones, C. (1994) The Presidency in a Separated System (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution).
  • Jungar, A. C. (2002) ‘A Case of a Surplus Majority Government: The Finnish Rainbow Coalition’, Scandinavian Political Studies (25) 57-83.
  • Kearns, D. (1976) Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream (New York: Harper & Row).
  • Kernell, S. (1997) Going Public: New Strategies of Presidential Leadership, 3rd edn (Washington, DC: CQ Press).
  • King, A. (1994) ‘Ministerial Autonomy in Britain’, in Cabinet Ministers and Parliamentary Government, ed. M. Laver and K. Shepsle (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 203-25.
  • Kirsche, L. (2007) ‘Semi-Presidentialism and the Perils of Power-Sharing in Neopatrimonial Regimes’, Comparative Political Studies (40) 372-94.
  • Knapp, A. and Wright, V. (2006) The Government and Politics of France, 5th edn (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Laver, M. and Schofield, N. (1998) Multiparty Government: The Politics of Coalition in Europe (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press).
  • Lewis-Beck, M., Nadeau, R. and Bélanger, E. (2012) French Presidential Elections (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Lijphart, A. (ed.) (1992) Parliamentary versus Presidential Govern­ment (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Lijphart, A. (2000) ‘The Future of Democracy: Reasons for Pessimism but also Some Optimism’, Scandinavian Political Studies (23) 265-72.
  • Linz, J. (1990) ‘The Perils of Presidentialism’, Journal of Democracy (1) 51-69.
  • Linz, J. and Valenzuela, A. (eds) (1994) The Failure of Presidential Democracy (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press).
  • Magnette, P. (2005) What Is the European Union? Nature and Prospects (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Mainwaring, S. (1992) ‘Presidentialism in Latin America’, in Parliamentary versus Presidential Government, ed. A. Lijphart (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 111-17.
  • Mainwaring, S. and Shugart, M. (eds) (1997) Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Mainwaring, S. and Welna, C. (eds) (2003) Democratic Accountability in Latin America (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Mansergh, L. and Thomson, R. (2007) ‘Election Pledges, Party Competition and Policy Making’, Comparative Politics (39) 311-30.
  • Martin, L. and Stevenson, R. (2001) ‘Government Formation in Parliamentary Democracies’, American Journal of Political Science (45) 33-50.
  • Mayer, K. (2011) ‘The Presidential Power of Unilateral Action’ in The Oxford Handbook of the American Presidency, ed. G. Edwards III and W. Howell (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 427–54.
  • Mayhew, D. (1991) Divided We Govern: Party Control, Lawmaking and Investigations, 1946-1990 (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press).
  • Mitra, S. (2012) ‘Politics in India’ in Comparative Politics Today, 10th edn, ed. G. Bingham, Powell, R. Dalton and K. Strøm (Glenview, IL: Pearson) pp. 568–615).
  • Moestrup, S. and Elgie, R. (eds) (2005) Semi-presidentialism outside Europe (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Müller, W. and Strøm, K. (eds) (2000) Coalition Governments in Western Europe (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Müller, W. and Strøm, K. (2000) ‘Coalition Governance in Western Europe’, in Coalition Governments in Western Europe, ed. W. Müller and K. Strøm (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 559-92.
  • Nelson, M. (ed.) (2009) The Presidency and the Political System, 9th edn (Washington, DC: CQ Press).
  • Neto, O. (2002) ‘Presidential Cabinets, Electoral Cycles and Coalition Discipline in Brazil’, in Legislative Politics in Latin America, ed. S. Morgenstern and B. Nacif (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 48-78.
  • Neustadt, R. (1991) Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents (New York: Free Press).
  • Nugent, N. (2006) The Government and Politics of the European Union, 6th edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Nousiainen, J. (2001) ‘From Semi-Presidentialism to Parliamentary Government: Political and Constitutional Developments in Finland’, Scandinavian Political Studies (24) 95-109.
  • Olsen, J. (1980) ‘Governing Norway: Segmentation, Anticipation and Consensus Formation’, in Presidents and Prime Ministers, ed. R. Rose and E. Suleiman (Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute) pp. 203-55.
  • Philip, G. (2003) Democracy in Latin America (Cambridge: Polity and Malden, MA: Blackwell).
  • Poguntke, T. and Webb, P. (2005) ‘The Presidentialization of Politics in Democratic Societies: A Framework for Analysis’, in The Presidentialization of Politics: A Comparative Study of Modern Democracies, ed. T. Poguntke and P. Webb (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 1-25.
  • Poguntke, T. and Webb, P. (eds) (2005) The Presidentialization of Politics: A Comparative Study of Modern Democracies (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Posner, D. and Young, D. (2007) ‘The Institutionalization of Political Power in Africa’, Journal of Democracy (19) 109-23.
  • Rasch, B. (2004) ‘Parliamentary Government’, in Nordic Politics: Comparative Perspectives, ed. K. Heidar (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget) pp. 127-41.
  • Rhodes, R. (2006) ‘Executives in Parliamentary Government’, in The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions, ed. R. Rhodes, S. Binder and B. Rockman (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 323-43.
  • Riker, W. (1962) The Theory of Political Coalitions (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press).
  • Rottinghaus, B. (2011) ‘The Presidency and Congress’, in New Directions in the American Presidency, ed. L. Han (New York: Routledge) pp. 83–102.
  • Saich, A. (2011) Governance and Politics of China, 3rd edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave).
  • Sandbrook R. (1985) The Politics of Africa’s Economic Stagnation (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Savoie, D. (1999) Governing from the Centre: The Concentration of Power in Canadian Politics (Toronto: University of Toronto Press).
  • Senelle, R. (1996) ‘The Reform of the Belgian State’, in Federalizing Europe? The Costs, Benefits and Preconditions of Federal Political Systems, ed. J. Hesse and V. Wright (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 266-324.
  • Shugart, M. and Carey, J. (1992) Presidents and Assemblies: Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Stepan, A. and Skatch, C. (1993) ‘Constitutional Frameworks and Democratic Consolidation: the Rule of Law: Parliamentarism versus Presidentialism’, World Politics (46) 1-22.
  • Stevens, A. (2003) Government and Politics of France, 3rd edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Strøm, K. and Nyblade, B. (2007) ‘Coalition Theory and Government Formation’ in The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics, ed. C. Boix and S. Stokes (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 782-804.
  • Strøm, K., Müller, W. and Bergman, T. (eds) (2008) Cabinets and Coalition Bargaining: The Democratic Life Cycle in Western Europe (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Tavits, M. (2008) Presidents with Prime Ministers: Do Direct Elections Matter? (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Warber, A. (2006) Executive Orders and the Modern Presidency: Legislating from the Oval Office (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner).
  • Warwick, P. and Druckman, J. (2006) ‘The Portfolio Allocation Paradox: An Investigation Into the Nature of a Very Strong but Puzzling Relationship’, European Journal of Political Research (45) 635-65.
  • White, S., Batt, J. and Lewis, P. (eds) (2003) Developments in Central and East European Politics 3 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Willerton, J. (2005) ‘Putin and the Hegemonic Presidency’, in Developments in Russian Politics 6, ed. S. White, Z. Gitelman and R. Sakwa (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 18-39.
  • Williams, P. (1970) Wars, Plots and Scandal in Post-War France (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Wood, B (2011) ‘Presidents and the Political Agenda’, in The Oxford Handbook of the American Presidency, ed. G. Edwards III and W. Howell (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 108–32.

Chapter Seventeen: Bureaucracy

  • Aberbach, J. et al. (1981) Bureaucrats and Politicians (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
  • Ágh, A. (2003) ‘Public Administration in Central and Eastern Europe’, in Handbook of Public Administration, ed. B. Guy Peters and J. Pierre (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage) pp. 536-48.
  • Alvarez, A. (2004) ‘State Reform Before and After Chávez’s Election’, in Venezuelan Politics in the Chávez Era: Class, Polarization and Conflict, ed. S. Ellner and D. Hellinger (Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner) pp. 147-60.
  • Andeweg, R. and Irwin, G. (2009) Governance and Politics of the Netherlands, 3rd edn (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave).
  • Ansell, C. and Gingrich, J. (2003) ‘Reforming the Administrative State’, in Democracy Transformed? Expanding Political Opportunities in Advanced Industrial Democracies, ed. B. Cain, R. Dalton and S. Scarrow (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 164-91.
  • Arter, D. (1999) Scandinavian Politics Today (Manchester: Manchester University Press, and New York: St Martin’s Press).
  • Bach, D. and Newman, A. (2007) ‘The European Regulatory State and Global Public Policy’, Journal of European Public Policy (14) 827-46.
  • Baum, C. and Di Maio, A. (2000) Gartner’s Four Phases of E-Government (Stanford, CA: Gartner).
  • Bekke, H., Perry, J. and Toonen, T. (1996) Civil Service Systems in Comparative Perspective (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press).
  • Boston, J. et al. (eds) (1995) Reshaping the State: New Zealand’s Bureaucratic Revolution (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Bourgault, J. (2002) ‘The Role of Deputy Ministers in Canadian Government’, in The Handbook of Canadian Public Administration, ed. C. Dunn (Don Mills, Ontario: Oxford University Press) pp. 430-49.
  • Caplan, J. (1988) Government without Administration: State and Civil Service in Weimar and Nazi Germany (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
  • Chazan, N. et al. (1999) Politics and Society in Contemporary Africa, 3rd edn (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner).
  • Christensen, T. and Peters, B. Guy (1999) Structure, Culture and Governance: A Comparison of Norway and the United States (Lanham, MD and Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield).
  • Christensen, T and Lægreid, P. (2007) ‘Theoretical Approach and Research Questions’ in Transcending New Public Management: The Transformation of Public Sector Reforms, ed. T. Christensen and P. Lægreid (Farnham: Ashgate) pp. 1-16.
  • Curry, G. and West, C. (eds) (1996) The Affirmative Action Debate (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley).
  • Dunleavy, D., Margetts, H., Bustow, S. and Tinkler, J. (2006) ‘New Public Management is Dead – Long Live Digital Era Governance’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory (16) 467–94.
  • Eichbaum, C. and Shaw, R. (2007) ‘Ministerial Advisers, Politicization and the Retreat from Westminster: The Case of New Zealand’, Public Administration (85) 569-87.
  • Elster, J., Offe, C. and Preuss, U. (1998) Institutional Design in Post-Communist Societies: Rebuilding the Ship at Sea (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Gajduschek, G. (2007) ‘Politicization, Professionalization, or Both?’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies (40) 343-62.
  • Gerth, H. and Mills, C. Wright (1948) From Max Weber (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul).
  • Gualmini, E. (2008) ‘Restructuring Weberian Bureaucracy: Comparing Managerial Reforms in Europe and the United States’, Public Administration (86) 75-94.
  • Halligan, J. (2003) ‘Leadership and the Senior Service from a Comparative Perspective’, in Handbook of Public Administration, ed. B. Guy Peters and J. Pierre (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage) pp. 343-53.
  • Handler, H. et al. (2005) The Size and Performance of Public Sector Activities in Europe (Internet Documents in Economics Access Service), http://ideas.repec.org, accessed 23 June 2009.
  • Heady, F. (2001) Public Administration: A Comparative Perspective, 6th edn (New York: Marcel Dekker).
  • Hood, C. (1996) ‘Exploring Variations in Public Management Reform in the 1990s’, in Civil Service Systems in Comparative Perspective, ed. H. Bekke, J. Perry and T. Toonen (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press) pp. 268-87.
  • Hood, C. et al. (1999) Regulation Inside Government: Waste-Watchers, Quality Police and Sleaze-Busters (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Hood, C., Rothstein, H. and Baldwin, R. (2004) The Government of Risk: Understanding Risk Regulation Regimes (NewYork and Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Hyden, G. (1997) ‘Democratization and Administration’, in Democracy’s Victory and Crisis, ed. A. Hadenius (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 242-62.
  • Johnson, C. (1987) Japan: Who Governs? The Rise of the Developmental State (New York and London: Norton).
  • Johnson, D. (2003) ‘A Tale of Two Systems: Prosecuting Corruption in Japan and Italy’, in The State of Civil Society in Japan, ed. F. Schwartz and S. Pharr (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 257-80.
  • Kahlberg, S. (ed.) (2005) Max Weber: Readings and Commentary on Modernity (Malden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell).
  • Kawabata, E. (2007) Contemporary Government Reform in Japan (London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Kennedy-Dubourdieu, E. (ed.) (2006) Race and Inequality: World Perspectives on Affirmative Action (Aldershot: Ashgate).
  • Keiser, L. (2011) ‘Representative Bureaucracy’ in The Oxford Handbook of American Bureaucracy, ed. R. Durant (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 714–37.
  • Kershaw, I. and Lewin, M. (eds) (1997) Stalinism and Nazism: Dictatorships in Comparison (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Kettl, D. (2006) ‘Public Bureaucracies’, in The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions, ed. R. Rhodes, S. Binder and B. Rockman (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 366-85.
  • Kingsley, J. (1944) Representative Bureaucracy (Yellow Springs, OH: Antioch).
  • Laegreid, P. and Olsen, J. (1978) Byråkrati og Beslutninger (Bergen: Norwegian University Press).
  • Lewin, M. (1997) ‘Bureaucracy and the Stalinist State’, in Stalinism and Nazism: Dictatorships in Comparison, ed. I. Kershaw and M. Lewin (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 53-74.
  • Manion, M. (2009) ‘Politics in China’, in Comparative Politics Today: A World View, 9th edn, ed. G. Almond et al. (New York and London: Pearson Longman) pp. 418-65.
  • Martin, S. and Steel, G. (eds) (2008) Democratic Reform in Japan: Assessing the Impact (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner).
  • Matsuura, K. et al. (2004) ‘Institutional Restructuring in the Japanese Economy since 1985’, in Where Are National Capitalisms Now? ed. J. Perraton and B. Clift (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 133-53.
  • Mommsen, H. (1997) ‘Cumulative Radicalization and Progressive Self-Destruction as Structural Determinants of the Nazi Dictatorship’, in Stalinism and Nazism: Dictatorships in Comparison, ed. I. Kershaw and M. Lewin et al. (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 75-87.
  • Montargil, F. (2010) ‘E-government and government transformation: technical interactivity, political influence and citizen return’ in Understanding E-Government in Europe: Issues and Challenges, ed. P. Nixon, V. Koutrakou and R. Rawal (Abingdon: Routledge) pp. 61–77.
  • Moran, M. (2011) Politics and Governance in the UK, 2nd edn (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Mulgan, R. (1997) Politics in New Zealand, 2nd edn (Auckland: Auckland University Press).
  • Mulgan, R. (2003) Holding Power to Account: Accountability in Modern Democracies (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Mulgan, R. (2007) ‘Truth in Government and the Politicization of Public Service Advice’, Public Administration (85) 569-87.
  • Neary, I. (2002) The State and Politics in Japan (Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity).
  • Nef, J. (2003) ‘Public Administration and Public Sector Reform in Latin America’, in Handbook of Public Administration, ed. B. Guy Peters and J. Pierre (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage) pp. 523-35.
  • Niskanen, W. (1971) Bureaucracy and Representative Government (Chicago: Aldine, Atherton).
  • Nixon, P., Koutrakou, V. and Rawal, R. (eds) (2010) Understanding E-Government in Europe: Issues and Challenges (Abingdon: Routledge).
  • O’Donnell, G. (1973) Modernization and Bureaucratic Authoritarianism: Studies in South American Politics (Berkeley, CA: California University Press) Accessed November 3, 2006.
  • O’Toole, B. and Chapman, R. (1995) ‘Parliamentary Accountability’, in Next Steps: Improving Management in Government, ed. B. O’Toole and G. Jordan (Aldershot and Brookfield, VT: Dartmouth) pp. 118-41.
  • Osborne, D. and Gaebler, T. (1992) Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector (New York and London: Penguin).
  • Page, E. and Wright, V. (eds) (2006) From the Active to the Enabling State: The Changing Role of Top Officials in European Nations (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Paulsen, B. (2007) ‘The Question of Roles and Identities in Public Administration’, Public Administration (30) 469-90.
  • Peters, B. Guy (2009) The Politics of Bureaucracy, 6th edn (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Peters, B. Guy and Pierre, J. (eds) (2003) Handbook of Public Administration (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage).
  • Peters. B. Guy and Pierre, J. (eds) (2004) The Politicization of the Civil Service in Comparative Perspective (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Polidano, C. (1998) ‘Why Bureaucrats Can’t Always Do What Ministers Want: Multiple Accountabilities in Westminster Democracies’, Public Policy and Administration (13) 35-50.
  • Pollitt, C. and Bouckaert, G. (2011) Public Management Reform: A Comparative Analysis, 3rd edn (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Raadschelders, J. and Rutgers, M. (1996) ‘The Evolution of Civil Service Systems’, in Civil Service Systems in Comparative Perspective, ed. H. Bekke, J. Perry and T. Toonen (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press) pp. 67-99.
  • Raadschelders, J., Toonen, T. and Van der Meer, F. (eds) (2007) The Civil Service in the 21st Century: Comparative Perspectives (London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Rockman, B. (2000) ‘Administering the Summit in the United States’, in Administering the Summit, ed. B. Guy Peters, R. Rhodes and V. Wright (London: Macmillan) pp. 245-62.
  • Rosenbluth, E and Thies, M. (2012) ‘Politics in Japan’, in Comparative Politics Today: A World View, 8th edn, ed. G. Almond et al. (New York: Pearson Longman) pp. 294-333.
  • Scheiner, E. (2006) Democracy without Competition in Japan: Opposition Failure in a One-Party Dominant State (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Schmidt, S., Shelley, M., Bardes, B. and Ford, L. (2012) American Government and Politics Today, 2011–12 edn (Boston, MA: Wadsworth).
  • Shafritz, J., Hyde, A. and Parkes, S. (eds) (2003) Classics in Public Administration, 5th edn (Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth).
  • Smith, B. (1996) Understanding Third World Politics (London: Macmillan).
  • Sotiropolilos, D. (2004) ‘Southern European Public Bureaucracies in Comparative Perspective’, West European Politics (27) 405-22.
  • Tardi, G. (2002) ‘Departments and Other Institutions of Government’, in Canadian Public Administration, ed. C. Dunn (Don Mills, Ontario: Oxford University Press) pp. 281-304.
  • Thatcher, M. and Coen, D. (2008) ‘Reshaping European Regulatory Space: An Evolutionary Analysis’, West European Politics (31) 806-36.
  • Turner, M. and Hulme, D. (1997) Governance, Administration and Development (London: Macmillan).
  • Twigg, J. (2005) ‘Social Policy in Post-Soviet Russia’, in Developments in Russian Politics 6, ed. S. White, Z. Gitelman and R. Sakwa (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan) pp. 204-20.
  • van der Meer, F., and Roborgh, R. (1996) ‘Civil Servants and Representativeness’, in Civil Service Systems in Comparative Perspective, ed. H. Bekke, J. Perry and T. Toonen (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press) pp. 119-33.
  • Willerton, J. (1997) ‘Presidential Power’, in Developments in Russian Politics, ed. S. White, A. Pravda and Z. Gitelman (Basingstoke: Macmillan) pp. 35-60.
  • Wilson, J. (1989) Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and How They Do It (New York: Basic Books).
  • Wise, L. (2003) ‘Representative Bureaucracy’, in Handbook of Public Administration, ed. B. Guy Peters and J. Pierre (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage) pp. 343-53.

Chapter Eighteen: Public Policy

  • Anton, T. (1969) ‘Policy-Making and Political Culture in Sweden’, Scandinavian Political Studies (4) 82-102.
  • Bardach, E. (1976) ‘Policy Termination as a Political Process’, Policy Sciences (7) 123-31.
  • Bauer, M. et al. (eds) (2012) Dismantling Public Policy: Preferences, Strategies, and Effects (New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Bendor, J., Moe, T. and Shorts, K. (2001) ‘Recycling the Garbage Can: An Assessment of the Research Program’, American Political Science Review (95) 169-90.
  • Bergström, H (1991) ‘Sweden’s Politics and Party System at the Crossroads’, West European Politics (14) 8-30.
  • Birkland, T. (2010) An Introduction to the Policy Process: Theories, Concepts and Models of Public Policy Making, 3rd edn (Armonk, NY and London: M. E. Sharpe).
  • Boardman, A. et al. (2010) Cost-Benefit Analysis: Concepts and Practice, 4th edn (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall).
  • Cerny, P. (1990) The Changing Architecture of Politics (Thousand Oaks, CA and London: Sage).
  • Chazan, N. et al. (1999) Politics and Society in Contemporary Africa, 3rd edn (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner).
  • Cohen, M., March, J. and Olsen, J. (1972) ‘A Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice’, Administrative Science Quarterly (17) 1-25.
  • Colebatch, H. (1998) Policy (Buckingham: Open University Press).
  • Dolowitz, D. and Marsh, D. (1996) ‘A Review of the Policy Transfer Literature’, Policy Studies (44) 343–57.
  • Drake, P. and Hershberg, E. (2006) ‘The Crisis of State-Society Relations in the Post-1980s Andes’, in State and Society in Conflict: Comparative Perspectives on Andean Crises, ed. R Drake and E. Hershberg (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press) pp. 1-40.
  • Dye, T. (2007) Understanding Public Policy, 12th edn (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall).
  • Eliadis, P., Hill, M. and Howlett, M. (eds) (2005) Designing Government: From Instruments to Governance (Montreal and London: McGill-Queen’s University Press).
  • Elster, J., Offe, C. and Preuss, U. (1998) Institutional Design in Post-Communist Societies: Rebuilding the Ship at Sea (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Esping-Andersen, G. (1990) The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (Oxford: Polity).
  • Esping-Andersen, G. (ed.) (2002) Why We Need a Welfare State (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Feigenbaum, H., Henig, J. and Hamnett, C. (2003) Shrinking the State: The Political Underpinnings of Privatization (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Fesler, J. and Kettl, D. (2011) The Politics of the Administrative Process, 5th edn (Washington, DC: CQ Press).
  • Fischer, F. (2003) Reframing Public Policy: Discursive Practice and Deliberative Practices (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Fischer, F. (2005) Evaluating Public Policy (Chicago: Nelson-Wood).
  • Gilardi, F. (2008) Delegation in the Regulatory State: Independent Regulatory Agencies in Western Europe (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar).
  • Heidar, K. (ed.) (2004) Nordic Politics: Comparative Perspectives (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget).
  • Henshel, R. (1990) Thinking about Social Problems (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich).
  • Hershberg, E. (2006) ‘Technocrats, Citizens and Second-Generation Reforms: Colombia’s Andean Malaise’, in State and Society in Conflict: Comparative Perspectives on the Andean Crisis, ed. P. Drake and E. Hershberg (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press) pp. 134-56
  • Hill, M. and Hupe, P. (2002) Implementing Public Policy: Governance in Theory and Practice (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage).
  • Hogwood, B. and Gunn, L. (1984) Policy Analysis for the Real World (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Hutter, B. (2005) ‘Risk Management and Governance’, in Designing Government: From Instruments to Governance, ed. P. Eliadis, M. Hill and M. Howlett (Montreal and London: McGill-Queen’s University Press) pp. 303-21.
  • John, P. (1998) Analysing Public Policy (London and New York: Continuum).
  • Kingdon, J. (2010) Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policy, updated 2nd edn (Boston, MA: Little, Brown).
  • Knill, C. and Tosun, J. (2012) Public Policy: A New Introduction (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Kuhnle, S. (2000) ‘The Scandinavian Welfare State in the 1990s: Challenged but Viable’, West European Politics (23) 209-28.
  • Lewin, L. (2006) Ideology and Strategy: A Century of Swedish Politics (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Lewis, D. (2002) ‘The Politics of Agency Termination: Confronting the Myth of Agency Termination’, Journal of Politics (64) 89-120.
  • Lieberman, I., Nestor, S. and Desai, R. (eds) (1997) Between State and Market: Mass Privatization in Transition Economies (Washington, DC: World Bank).
  • Lijphart, A. and Waisman, C. (1996) ‘The Design of Democracies and Markets: Generalizing Across Regions’, in Institutional Design in New Democracies: Eastern Europe and Latin America, ed. A. Lijphart and C. Waisman (Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview) pp. 235-48.
  • Lijphart, A. and Waisman, C. (eds) (1996) Institutional Design in New Democracies: Eastern Europe and Latin America (Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview).
  • Lindblom, C. (1959) ‘The Science of Muddling Through’, Public Administration (19) 78-88.
  • Lindblom, C. (1977) Politics and Markets (New York: Basic Books).
  • Lindblom, C. (1979) ‘Still Muddling, Not Yet Through’, Public Administration Review (39) 517-26.
  • Lindblom, C. (1990) Inquiry and Change: The Troubled Attempt to Understand and Shape Society (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press).
  • Lindvall, J. and Rothstein, B. (2006) ‘Sweden: The Fall of the Strong State’, Scandinavian Political Studies (29) 47-63.
  • Majone, G. (1996) Regulating Europe (London and New York: Routledge).
  • Majone, G. (2006) ‘Agenda Setting’, in The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy, ed. M. Moran, M. Rein and R. Goodin (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press) pp. 228-50.
  • Marshall, T. (1950) [1991 edn] Citizenship and Social Class and Other Essays (London: Pluto Press).
  • Miles, L. (2013) The New Politics of Sweden (London: Bloomsbury).
  • Moran, M. (2003) The British Regulatory State: High Modernism and Hyper-Innovation (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Moran, M., Rein, M. and Goodin, R. (eds) (2006) The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Osborne, D. and Gaebler, T. (1992) Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector (New York and London: Penguin).
  • Parsons, W. (1995) Public Policy: An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Policy Analysis (Brookfield, VT and Aldershot: Edward Elgar).
  • Peters, B. Guy (2012) American Public Policy: Promise and Performance, 9th edn (Washington, DC: CQ Press).
  • Pierson, C. (1998) Beyond the Welfare State? The New Political Economy of Welfare, 2nd edn (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press and Cambridge: Polity).
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Chapter Nineteen: Comparative Methods