Global Politics

First edition

by Andrew Heywood

Key thinkers

Use the alphabetical list below browse key thinkers by surname.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


Thomas Aquinas (1225–74)
Italian Dominican monk, theologian and philosopher. Born near Naples, the son of a noble family,Aquinas joined the Dominican order against his family’s wishes. Aquinas’ vast but unfinished Summa Theologica, begun in 1265, deals with the nature of God, morality and law – eternal, divine, natural and human. Influenced by Aristotle and Augustine, he identified three conditions for a war to be just: (1) war should be declared by a person with the authority to do so, (2) the war should have a just cause, and (3) the belligerents should have a right intention (that is, the desire for peace and the avoidance of evil). Aquinas was canonized in 1324, and in the nineteenth century Pope Leo III recognized Aquinas’ writings as the basis of Catholic theology.


Jagdish Bhagwati (born 1934)
An Indian-American economist and adviser to the UN and the WTO, Bhagwati has been a leader in the fight for freer trade, arguing that globalization has a ‘human face’, even though this needs to be made more agreeable. His works include In Defence of Globalization (2004) and Termites in the Trading System (2008).

Zygmunt Bauman (born 1925)
A Polish sociologist, Bauman’s interests range from the nature of intimacy to globalization, and from the Holocaust to reality television programmes such as Big Brother. Sometimes portrayed as the ‘prophet of postmodernity’, he has highlighted trends such as the emergence of new patterns of deprivation and exclusion, the psychic corruption of consumer society, and the growing tendency for social relations to have a ‘liquid’ character. Bauman’s main writings include Modernity and the Holocaust (1994), Globalization (1998) and Liquid Modernity (2000).

Ulrich Beck (born 1944)
A German sociologist, Beck’s work has examined topics as wide-ranging as the new world of work, the perils of globalization, and challenges to the global power of capital. In The Risk Society (1992), he analyzed the tendency of the globalizing economy to generate uncertainty and insecurity. Individualization (2002) (written with his wife, Elizabeth) champions rights-based individualization against free-market individualism. In Power in the Global Age (2005), Beck explored how the strategies of capital can be challenged by civil society movements.

Ben Bernanke (born 1953)
A US economist and Chairman of the US Federal Reserve since 2006, Bernanke was instrumental in managing the USA’s response to the 2007–09 global financial crisis. Bernanke’s academic writings have focused largely on the economic and political causes of the Great Depression, highlighting, amongst other things, the role of the Federal Reserve and the tendency of banks and financial institutions to cut back significantly on lending. Bernanke’s main work is Essays on the Great Depression (2004).

Murray Bookchin (1921–2006)
A US libertarian socialist, Bookchin highlighted parallels between anarchism and ecology through the idea of ‘social ecology’, and was also strongly critical of the ‘mystical’ ideas of deep ecology, which he dubbed ‘eco-la-la’. His major works in this field include The Ecology of Freedom ([1982]) and Re-Enchanting Humanity (1995).

Hedley Bull (1932–1985)
An Australian international relations theorist, Bull’s The Anarchical Society ([1977] 2002) famously distinguished between a ‘system of states’ and a ‘society of states’. He advanced a neo-Grotian approach to theory and practice, in which international society amounts to a real but fragile normative order, based on the institutions of the balance of power, international law, diplomacy, war and the great powers. Bull (1966) also acknowledged that international society may tend towards either solidarism or pluralism, depending on the extent to which states operate cohesively and pursue shared goals. His other major works include The Control of the Arms Race (1961) and Justice in International Relations (1984).


E. H. Carr (1892–1982)
British historian, journalist and international relations theorist. Carr joined the Foreign Office and attended the Paris Peace Conference at the end of WWI.Appointed Woodrow Wilson Professor of International Politics at the University College of Wales at Aberystwyth in 1936, he later became assistant editor of The Times of London before returning to academic life in 1953. Carr is best known for The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 1919–1939 (1939), a critique of the entire peace settlement of 1919 and the wider influence of ‘utopianism’ on diplomatic affairs, especially a reliance on international bodies such as the League of Nations. He is often viewed as one of the key realist theorists, drawing attention to the need to manage (rather than ignore) conflict between ‘have’ and ‘have-not’ states. Nevertheless, he condemned cynical realpolitik for lacking moral judgement. Carr’s other writing includes Nationalism and After (1945) and the quasi-Marxist 14-volume A History of Soviet Russia (1950–78).

Manuel Castells (born 1942)
A Spanish sociologist, Castells is especially associated with the idea of information society and communications research. He suggests that we live in a ‘network society’, in which territorial borders and traditional identities have been undermined by the power of knowledge flows. Castells thus emphasizes the ‘informational’ basis of network society, and shows how human experience of time and space have been transformed. His works include The Rise of the Network Society (1996), The Internet Galaxy (2004) and Communication Power (2009).

Noam Chomsky (born 1928)
US linguistic theorist and radical intellectual, Chomsky was born in Philadelphia, the son of eastern European immigrant parents. His Syntactic Structures (1957) revolutionized the discipline of linguistics with the theory of ‘transformational grammar’, which proposed that humans have an innate capacity to acquire language. Radicalized during the Vietnam War, Chomsky subsequently became the leading radical critic of US foreign policy, developing his views in an extensive range of works including American Power and the New Mandarins (1969), New Military Humanism (1999) and Hegemony and Survival (2004). In works such as (with Edward Herman) Manufacturing Consent (1988), he developed a radical critique of the mass media and examined how popular support for imperialist aggression is mobilized.

Karl von Clausewitz (1780–1831)
Prussian general and military theorist. The son of a Lutheran Pastor, Clausewitz entered the Prussian military service at the age of 12, and achieved the rank of Major- General by the age of 38. Having studied the philosophy of Kant (see p. 16) and been involved in the reform of the Prussian army, Clausewitz set out his ideas on military strategy in On War ([1832] 1976).Widely interpreted as advancing the idea that war is essentially a political act, an instrument of policy, the book sets out a ‘trinitarian’ theory of warfare which involves (1) the masses, who are motivated by a sense of national animosity, (2) the army, which devises strategies to take account of the contingencies of war, and (3) political leaders, who establish the aims and objectives of military action. Clausewitz is usually regarded as the greatest writer on military theory and war.

Robert Cox (born 1926)
Canadian international political economist and leading exponent of critical theory. Cox worked in the International Labour Organization (ILO), before, in the early 1970s, taking up an academic career. Cox adopted a ‘reflexive’ approach to theory, in which theories are firmly linked to their context and subject. In his seminal work, Production, Power, and World Order: Social Forces in the Making of History (1987), he examined the relationship between material forces of production, ideas and institutions in three periods: the liberal international economy (1789–1873); the era of rival imperialisms (1873–1945); and the neoliberal world order (post-1945). His writing examines issues such as the implications of globalization and the nature of US global hegemony, in part to highlight the prospects for counter-hegemonic social forces. Cox’s other major writings include (with H. Jacobson) The Anatomy of Influence (1972), ‘Social forces, states and world orders’ (1981) and (with Timothy J. Sinclair) Approaches to World Order (1996).

Martin van Creveld (born 1946)
Israeli military historian and theorist of war. Van Creveld’s The Transformation of War (1991) attempts to explain the apparent military impotence of the developed world due to the predominance, since 1945, of low-intensity conflicts and non-conventional warfare. In this context, Clausewitzian ideas about political war no longer apply, as war often becomes an end in itself, rather than an instrument of national power.Van Creveld’s other key works include Supplying War (1977) and The Art of War (2000).


Herman Daly (born 1938)
A US ecological economist, Daly is best known for his theory of steadystate economics. This suggests that perpetual economic growth is neither possible nor desirable. Daly champions qualitatively-defined ‘development’ over quantitatively-defined ‘growth (‘more of the same stuff’), and favours rich countries reducing their economic growth to free up resources and ecological space for use by the poor. His key works include Steady-State Economics (1973) and (with J. Cobb) For the Common Good (1990).

Karl Deutsch (1912–92)
A Czech-born US political scientist, Deutsch challenged the traditional realist image of international relations by emphasizing how regional integration can modify the impact of international anarchy. ‘Amalgamation’, through the construction of a single decisionmaking centre, would nevertheless be less common than ‘integration’, which allows sovereign states to interact within a ‘pluralist security community’. Deutsch’s major works in this field include Political Community in the North Atlantic Area (1957) and Nation-Building (1966).


Jean Bethke Elshtain (born 1941)
A US political philosopher, Elshtain’s Public Man, Private Woman (1981) made a major contribution to feminist scholarship in examining the role of gender in informing the division between the public and private spheres in political theory. In Women and War (1987), she discussed the perceptual lenses that determine the roles of men and women in war, interweaving personal narrative and historical analysis to highlight the myths that men are ‘just warriors’ and women are ‘beautiful souls’ to be saved. In Just War against Terror (2003), Elshtain mounted an impassioned defence of the ‘war on terror’ based on just war theory.

Cynthia Enloe (born 1938)
A US feminist academic, Enloe’s writings aim to expose the multiplicity of roles women play in sustaining global economic forces and inter-state relations. Often associated with feminist empiricism, she has been concerned to counter the tendency within conventional paradigms to limit, usually in a gendered fashion, our perceptual and conceptual fields, effectively excluding women from analysis. In works such as Bananas, Beaches and Bases (1989), The Morning After (1993) and Manoeuvres (2000) Enloe has examined international politics as if the experiences of women are a matter of central concern.


Milton Friedman (1912–2006)
US academic and economist. A trenchant critic of Roosevelt’s ‘New Deal’, and close associate of Friedrich Hayek, Friedman became professor of economics at the University of Chicago in 1948, founding the so-called Chicago School. Friedman also worked as a Newsweek columnist and a US presidential adviser. He was awarded the Nobel prize for economics in 1976. A leading exponent of monetarism and freemarket economics, Friedman was a powerful critic of Keynesian theory and ‘tax and spend’ government policies, helping to shift economic priorities during the 1970s and 1980s in the USA and the UK in particular. His major works, Capitalism and Freedom (1962) and, with his wife Rose, Free to Choose (1980) had a considerable impact on emergent neoliberal thinking.

Michel Foucault (1926–84)
French philosopher and radical intellectual. The son of a prosperous surgeon, Foucault had a troubled youth in which he attempted suicide on several occasions and struggled to come to terms with his homosexuality. His work, which ranged over the history of madness, of medicine, of punishment, of sexuality and of knowledge itself, was based on the assumption that the institutions, concepts and beliefs of each period are upheld by ‘discourses of power’. This suggests that power relations can largely be disclosed by examining the structure of ‘knowledge’, since ‘truth serves the interests of a ruling class or the prevailing power-structure’. Foucault’s most important works include Madness and Civilization (1961), The Order of Things (1966) and The History of Sexuality (1976).

Francis Fukuyama (born 1952)
US social analyst and political commentator. Fukuyama was born in Chicago, USA, the son of a Protestant preacher. He was a member of the Policy Planning Staff of the US State Department before becoming a consultant for the Rand Corporation. A staunch Republican, he came to international prominence as a result of his article ‘The End of History?’ (1989), which he later developed into The End of History and the Last Man (1992). These claimed that the history of ideas had ended with the recognition of liberal democracy as ‘the final form of human government’. In Trust (1996) and The Great Disruption (1999), Fukuyama discussed the relationship between economic development and social cohesion, highlighting contrasting forms of capitalist development. In After the Neocons (2006) he developed a critique of US foreign policy in the post-9/11 period.


Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869–1948)
Indian spiritual and political leader (called Mahatma, ‘Great Soul’). A lawyer trained in the UK, Gandhi worked in South Africa, where he organized protests against discrimination. After returning to India in 1915, he became the leader of the nationalist movement, campaigning tirelessly for independence, finally achieved in 1947. Gandhi’s ethic of non-violent resistance, satyagraha, reinforced by his ascetic lifestyle, gave the movement for Indian independence enormous moral authority. Derived from Hinduism, Gandhi’s political philosophy was based on the assumption that the universe is regulated by the primacy of truth, or satya, and that humankind is ‘ultimately one’. Gandhi was assassinated in 1948 by a fanatical Hindu, becoming a victim of the ferocious Hindu–Muslim violence which followed independence.

Susan George (born 1934)
A US political scientist, George has been a fierce critic of the ‘maldevelopment’ policies of the IMF and the World Bank, advancing an uncompromising critique of the impact of capitalism on the world’s poor. Her works include How the Other Half Dies (1976), A Fate Worse Than Debt (1988) and Another World is Possible If (2004).

Antonio Gramsci (1891–1937)
Italian Marxist and social theorist. The son of a minor public official, Gramsci joined the Socialist Party in 1913, but switched to the newly-formed Italian Communist Party in 1921, being recognized as its leader by 1924. He was imprisoned by Mussolini in 1926, and remained incarcerated until his death. In Prison Notebooks (1970), written between 1929 and 1935, Gramsci sought to redress the emphasis within orthodox Marxism on economic or material factors. Rejecting any form of ‘scientific’ determinism, he stressed, through the theory of hegemony, the importance of political and intellectual struggle. Gramsci insisted that bourgeois hegemony could only be challenged at the political and intellectual level, through a ‘counter-hegemonic’ struggle, carried out in the interests of the proletariat and on the basis of socialist principles, values and theories.

Hugo Grotius (1583–1645
Dutch jurist, philosopher and writer. Born in Delft into a family of professional lawyers, Grotius became a diplomat and political adviser and held a number of political offices. In On the Law of War and Peace (1625), he developed a secular basis for international law, arguing that it is grounded not in theology but in reason. This was largely accomplished by constructing a theory of the just war, based on natural rights. For Grotius there were four causes of a just war: (1) self-defence, (2) to enforce rights, (3) to seek reparations for injury and (4) to punish a wrong-doer. By restricting the right of states to go to war for political purposes, Grotius emphasized the common purposes of the international community and helped to found the idea of international society (see p. 10), as developed by the ‘neo-Grotian’ English School.


Garrett Hardin (1915–2003)
A US ecologist and microbiologist, Hardin is best known for the idea of the ‘tragedy of the commons’ (1968). He developed an uncompromising form of ecologism that warned against the dangers of population growth and freedom. Hardin’s chief works include The Tragedy of the Commons (1968) and Lifeboat Ethics (1974).

Ernst Haas (1924–2003)
A German-born US international relations theorist, Haas is best known as one of the founders of neofunctionalism, or ‘federalism by instalments’, particularly as applied to European integration. He argued that the process of ‘spillover’ would lead political actors progressively to shift their loyalties, expectations and activities from the nation-state towards a ‘new larger centre’. However, Haas became disenchanted with neofunctionalism in the 1970s. His main works include Beyond the Nation-State (1964) and Tangle of Hopes (1969).

Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679)
English political philosopher. Hobbes was the son of a minor clergyman who subsequently abandoned his family.Writing at a time of uncertainty and civil strife, precipitated by the English Revolution, Hobbes developed the first comprehensive theory of nature and human behaviour since Aristotle. His classic work, Leviathan (1651) discussed the grounds of political obligation and undoubtedly reflected the impact of the Civil War. Based on the assumption that human beings seek ‘power after power’, it provided a realist justification for absolutist government as the only alternative to the anarchy of the ‘state of nature’, in which life would be ‘solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short’. Hobbes’ emphasis on the state as an essential guarantor of order and security has led to a revived interest in his ideas since 9/11.

Samuel P. Huntington (1927–2008)
US academic and political commentator. Huntington made influential contributions to three fields: military politics, strategy and civil/military relations; US and comparative politics; and the politics of less developed societies. In The Third Wave (1991) he coined the notion of ‘waves of democratization’ and linked the process of democratization after 1972 to earlier waves, in 1828-1926 and 1943-62. His most widely discussed work, The Clash of Civilizations and the Making of World Order (1996), advanced the controversial thesis that in the twenty-first century conflict between the world’s major civilizations would lead to warfare and international disorder. In Who Are We? (2004) Huntington discussed the challenges posed to the USA’s national identity by large-scale Latino immigration and the unwillingness of Latino communities to assimilate into the language and culture of majority society.


Mary Kaldor (born 1946)
UK academic and international relations theorist. In New Wars and Old Wars (2006), Kaldor linked new wars to the crisis in state authority that has occurred through the impact of privatization and globalization. Violent struggles to gain access to or control the state lead to massive violations of human rights, with violence usually being carried out in the name of identity and mainly being directed against civilians. Kaldor’s other works include Global Civil Society (2003) and Human Security (2007).

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
German philosopher. Kant spent his entire life in Königsberg (which was then in East Prussia), becoming professor of logic and metaphysics at the University of Königsberg in 1770. His ‘critical’ philosophy holds that knowledge is not merely an aggregate of sense impressions; it depends on the conceptual apparatus of human understanding. Kant’s political thought was shaped by the central importance of morality. He believed that the law of reason dictated categorical imperatives, the most important of which was the obligation to treat others as ‘ends’, and never only as ‘means’. Kant’s most important works include Critique of Pure Reason (1781), Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose (1784) and Metaphysics of Morals (1785).

Robert Keohane (born 1941)
US international relations theorist. With his long-time collaborator, Joseph S. Nye (see p. 215), Keohane questioned some of the core assumptions of realist analysis in Transnational Relations and World Politics (1971), highlighting the increasing importance of non-state actors and of economic issues in world affairs. In Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition (1977) Keohane and Nye set out the theory of ‘complex interdependence’ as an alternative to realism, based on the trend towards international cooperation and the growing significance of international regimes. Since the publication of After Hegemony (1984), however, Keohane has attempted to synthesize structural realism and complex interdependence, creating a hybrid dubbed either ‘modified structural realism’ or ‘neoliberal institutionalism’. His other major works include International Institutions and State Power (1989) and Power and Interdependence in a Partially Globalized World (2002).

Robert Keohane (born 1941)
US international relations theorist. With his long-time collaborator, Joseph S. Nye (see p. 215), Keohane questioned some of the core assumptions of realist analysis in Transnational Relations and World Politics (1971), highlighting the increasing importance of non-state actors and of economic issues in world affairs. In Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition (1977) Keohane and Nye set out the theory of ‘complex interdependence’ as an alternative to realism, based on the trend towards international cooperation and the growing significance of international regimes. Since the publication of After Hegemony (1984), however, Keohane has attempted to synthesize structural realism and complex interdependence, creating a hybrid dubbed either ‘modified structural realism’ or ‘neoliberal institutionalism’. His other major works include International Institutions and State Power (1989) and Power and Interdependence in a Partially Globalized World (2002).

John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946)
British economist. Keynes’s reputation was established by his critique of the Treaty of Versailles, outlined in The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919). His major work, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money ([1936] 1963), departed significantly from neoclassical economic theories, and went a long way towards establishing the discipline now known as macroeconomics. By challenging laissez-faire principles, he provided the theoretical basis for the policy of demand management, which was widely adopted by western governments in the early post- WWII period.The last years of his life saw him devoting much of his efforts to shaping the nature of the post-war international monetary order through the establishment of the Bretton Woods system, including the IMF and the World Bank.

David Kilkullen (born 1967)
Australian former army officer and adviser on counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency. He argues that as the contemporary conflict environment is often complex, diverse, diffuse and highly lethal, counter-insurgency must seek to control the overall environment, paying particular attention to its ‘cultural ethnography’. Kilkullen’s ideas have influenced the USA’s altered approach to the ‘war on terror’. His works include ‘Countering Global Insurgency’ (2005), The Accidental Guerrilla (2009) and Counter Insurgency (2010).

Naomi Klein (born 1970)
Canadian journalist, author and anti-corporate activist. Klein’s No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies (2000) is a wide-ranging critique of lifestyle branding and labour abuses, and discusses emerging forms of resistance to globalization and corporate domination. It has been described as ‘the book that became part of the movement’ but has had wider significance in provoking reflection on the nature of consumer capitalism and the tyranny of brand culture. In Disaster Capitalism (2008), she drew attention to the extent to which the advance of neoliberalism has been implicated in ‘shocks’, states of emergency and crises of one kind or another. Klein is a frequent and influential media commentator. She lives in Toronto but travels widely throughout North America, Asia, Latin America and Europe, supporting movements campaigning against the negative effects of globalization.

Paul Krugman (born 1953)
A US economist and political commentator, Krugman’s academic work has primarily focused on international economics. A neo-Keynesian, he has viewed expansionary fiscal policy as the solution to recession. Krugman criticized the Bush administration’s tax cuts and widening deficit as unsustainable in the long run. His best-known works include The Conscience of a Liberal (2007) and The Return of Depression Economics and the Crisis of 2008 (2008).


James Lovelock (born 1919)
UK atmospheric chemist, inventor and environmental thinker. Lovelock was recruited by NASA as part of its team devising strategies for identifying life on Mars, but he has subsequently worked as an independent scientist for over 40 years. He adopts a holistic approach to science which rejects disciplinary distinctions and emphasizes instead interconnectedness. Lovelock is best known for the ‘Gaia hypothesis’, which proposes that the earth is best understood as a complex, self-regulating, living ‘being’. This implies that the prospects for humankind are closely linked to whether the species helps to sustain, or to threaten, the planetary ecosystem. Lovelock was also the first person to alert the world to the worldwide presence of CFCs in the atmosphere. His chief works include Gaia (1979) and The Ages of Gaia (1989).


Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527)
Italian politician and author. The son of a civil lawyer, Machiavelli’s knowledge of public life was gained from a sometimes precarious existence in politically unstable Florence. As a servant of the republic of Florence, he was despatched on diplomatic missions to France, Germany and throughout Italy. After a brief period of imprisonment and the restoration of Medici rule, Machiavelli retired into private life and embarked on a literary career. His major work The Prince, written in 1513 but not published until 1531 and seen as the classic realist analysis of power politics, drew heavily on his first-hand observations of the statecraft of Cesare Borgia. The Disourses, written over a twenty-year period, nevertheless portray him as a republican. The adjective ‘Machiavellian’ (fairly or unfairly) subsequently came to mean ‘cunning and duplicitous’.

Thomas Malthus (1766–1834)
A UK political economist and clergyman. Malthus was brought up according to the Enlightenment ideas of thinkers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–78) and David Hume (1711–76). He became a Church of England minister in 1788. Malthus is best known for the views set out in his pamphlet, later expanded into a book in many editions, the Essay on Population (1798). Its key argument was that (unchecked) population growth will always exceed the growth of the means of subsistence, because population growth is exponential (or geometric) while the growth in the supply of food and other essentials is merely arithmetical. Population growth would therefore always result in famine, disease and war. While some have argued that Malthus’ predictions were fundamentally flawed, as they took no account of improvements in agricultural and other technologies, others have suggested that his predictions have merely been postponed.

Karl Marx (1818–83)
German philosopher, economist and political thinker, usually portrayed as the father of twentieth-century communism. After a brief career as a university teacher, Marx became increasingly involved in the socialist movement. Finally settling in London, he worked for the rest of his life as an active revolutionary and writer, supported by his friend and lifelong collaborator, Friedrich Engels (1820–95). At the centre of Marx’s work was a critique of capitalism that highlights its transitionary nature by drawing attention to systemic inequality and instability. Marx subscribed to a teleological theory of history that holds that social development would inevitably culminate in the establishment of communism. His classic work was the three-volume Capital ([1885, 1887, 1894] 1969); his best-known and most accessible work, with Engels, is the Communist Manifesto ([1848] 1967).

John Mearsheimer (born 1947)
US political scientist and international relations theorist. Mearsheimer is one of the leading exponents of offensive realism and a key architect of neorealist stability theory. In 'Back to the Future' (1990) he argued that the Cold War had been largely responsible for maintaining peace in Europe, warning that the end of Cold War bipolarity created the prospect of increased international conflict. In The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (2001), Mearsheimer argued that, as it is impossible to determine how much power is sufficient to ensure survival, great powers will always seek to achieve hegemony, behaving aggressively when they believe they enjoy a power advantage over their rivals. Mearsheimer has been a vocal critic of US policy towards China, believing that this is strengthening China, ultimately at the expense of the USA. He was also an outspoken opponent of the Iraq War, arguing that the use of military force would strengthen anti-Americanism in the Arab and Islamic worlds. His other major works include (with Stephen Walt) The Israel Lobby and US Foreign Policy (2007).

Carolyn Merchant (born 1936)
A US ecofeminist philosopher and historian of science, Merchant portrays female nature as the benevolent mother of all undermined by the ‘dominion’ model of nature that emerged out of the scientific revolution and the rise of market society. Her main works include The Death of Nature (1983) and Radical Ecology (1992).

Jean Monnet (1888–1979)
French economist and administrator. Monnet was largely self-taught. He found employment during WWI coordinating Franco-British war supplies, and he was later appointed Deputy Secretary-General of the League of Nations. He was the originator of Winston Churchill’s offer of union between the UK and France in 1940, which was abandoned once Pétain’s Vichy regime had been installed. Monnet took charge of the French modernization programme under de Gaulle in 1945, and in 1950 he produced the Schuman Plan, from which the European Coal and Steel community and the European Economic Community were subsequently developed. Although Monnet rejected intergovernmentalism in favour of supranational government, he was not a formal advocate of European federalism.

David Mitrany (1888–1975)
A Romanian-born UK historian and political theorist, Mitrany was the leading exponent of functionalism in international politics. His ‘functionalist-sociological’ approach emphasized that international cooperation would begin over specific transnational issues and then develop into a wider process. As ‘functional’ bodies proved to be more effective than national government, the state-system would develop into a ‘working peace system’. Mitrany’s major writings include A Working Peace System (1966) and The Functionalist Theory of Politics (1975).

Hans Morgenthau (1904–80)
German-born, US international relations theorist. A Jewish refugee from Nazi Germany, Morgenthau arrived in the USA in 1937 and started an academic career which led to him being dubbed the ‘Pope’ of international relations. Morgenthau’s Politics Among Nations (1948) was highly influential in the development of international relations theory. He set out to develop a science of ‘power politics’, based on the belief, clearly echoing Machiavellian Hobbes, that what he called ‘political man’ is an innately selfish creature with an insatiable urge to dominate others. Rejecting ‘moralistic’ approaches to international politics, Morgenthau advocated an emphasis on ‘realistic’ diplomacy, based on an analysis of balance of power and the need to promote the national interest. His other major writings include Scientific Man Versus Power Politics (1946), In Defence of the National Interest (1951) and The Purpose of American Politics (1960).


Arne Naess (1912–2009)
A Norwegian philosopher who was influenced by the teachings of Spinoza, Gandhi and Buddha, Naess was the leading advocate of ‘deep ecology’, arguing that ecology should be concerned with every part of nature on an equal basis, because natural order has an intrinsic value. His writings include Ecology, Community and Lifestyle (1989).

Terry Nardin (born 1942)
A US political scientist and academic, Nardin’s Law, Morality and the Relations of States (1983) advanced a pluralist model of international society, based on a ‘practical’, rather than a ‘purposive’, association of states. Drawing on the ideas of the UK political philosopher, Michael Oakeshott (1901-90), he argued that international society provides rules that enable its member states to coexist and to interact with one another in a peaceful and orderly fashion, despite being committed to different cultures, ways of life, and political systems. Nardin is particularly interested in the tensions between sovereignty and legitimacy. His other main works include The Philosophy of Michael Oakeshott (2001).

Joseph S. Nye (born 1937)
US academic and foreign policy analyst. Nye was, with Robert Keohane (see p. 435), one of the leading theorists of ‘complex interdependence’, which offered an alternative to the realist belief in international anarchy (Keohane and Nye 1977). In Bound to Lead (1990) and The Paradox of American Power (2002) he has emphasised the need for the USA to redefine the national interest in the light of developments such as globalization and the information revolution, recognizing that the new conditions of global interdependence placed a greater stress on multilateral cooperation. As he put it, the USA ‘can’t go it alone’. Nye has been particularly associated with the idea of ‘soft power’ (the ability to attract and persuade), a term he coined, and later with the notion of ‘smart power’, a blend of 'soft' and ‘hard’ power. Nye's other major works include Soft Power (2005), Understanding International Conflict (2008a) and The Powers to Lead (2008b).


Roland Robertson (born 1938)
A UK sociologist and one of the pioneers in the study of globalization, Robertson’s psychosocial view of globalization portrays it as ’the compression of the world and the intensification of the consciousness of the world as a whole’. He has drawn attention to both the process of ‘relativization’ (when local cultures and global pressures mix) and the process of ‘glocalization’ (through which global pressures are forced to conform to local conditions). Robertson’s key work in this field is Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture (1992).


Jeffrey Sachs (born 1954)
A US economist, Sachs has been a leading exponent of sustainable development, placing an emphasis on ending extreme poverty and hunger and advising the UN on strategies for supporting the Millennium Development Goals. His publications include The End of Poverty (2005) and Common Wealth (2008).

Saskia Sassen (born 1949)
A Dutch sociologist, Sassen is noted for her analyses of globalization and international human migration. In The Global City (2001), she examined how cities such as New York, London and Tokyo have become emblematic of the capacity of globalization to create contradictory spaces, characterized by the relationship between the employees of global corporations and the vast population of the low-income ‘others’ (often migrants and women). Sassen’s other works include The Mobility of Capital and Labour (1988) and Territory, Authority, Rights (2006).

Jan Aart Scholte (born 1959)
A Dutch sociologist and globalization theorist, Scholte argues that globalization is best understood as a reconfiguration of social geography marked by the growth of transplanetary and supraterritorial connections between people. Although by no means a critic of the ‘supraterritorialism’ that globalization brings about, he highlights the tendency of ‘neoliberalist globalization’ to heighten insecurities, exacerbate inequalities and deepen democratic deficits. Scholte’s main works include International Relations of Social Change (1993) and Globalization: A Critical Introduction (2005).

Vandana Shiva (born 1952)
An Indian ecofeminist activist and nuclear physicist, Shiva is a trenchant critic of the biotechnology industry. She argues that the advance of globalization has threatened biodiversity and deepened poverty, particularly among women. Her writings include Monocultures of the Mind (1993) and Stolen Harvest (1999).
See also

Ernst Friedrich Schumacher (1911–77)
A German-born UK economist and environmental thinker, Schumacher championed the cause of human-scale production and advanced a ‘Buddhist’ economic philosophy (economics ‘as if people mattered’) that stresses the importance of morality and ‘right livelihood’. His key work is Small is Beautiful (1973).

Amartya Sen (born 1933)
An Indian welfare economist and philosopher, Sen has made a major contribution to shifting thinking about development away from economic models and towards ideas such as capacity, freedom and choice. His works include Poverty and Famine (1981), Development as Freedom (1999) and The Idea of Justice (2009).

Adam Smith (1723–90)
Scottish economist and philosopher, usually seen as the founder of the ‘dismal science’ (economics). After holding the chair of logic and then moral philosophy at Glasgow University, Smith became tutor to the Duke of Buccleuch, which enabled him to visit France and Geneva and to develop his economic theories. The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) developed a theory of motivation that tried to reconcile human self-interestedness with unregulated social order. Smith’s most famous work, The Wealth of Nations (1776), was the first systematic attempt to explain the workings of the economy in market terms, emphasizing the importance of the division of labour. Although he is often viewed as a free-market theorist, Smith was nevertheless aware of the limitations of the market.

George Soros (born 1930)
A Hungarian-born stock market investor, businessman and philanthropist, Soros has been a critic of the market fundamentalist belief in natural equilibrium. He particularly emphasizes the role of reflexivity (the tendency for cause and effect to be linked, as actions ‘bend back on’ themselves) in showing why rational-actor economic models do not work. Soros’s main works include Open Society (2000) and The New Paradigm for Financial Markets (2008).

Joseph Stiglitz (born 1943)
Nobel Prize-winning US economist. The chair of President Clinton’s Council of Economic Advisors, 1995–97, and chief economist of the World Bank, 1997–2000, Stiglitz is best known for his critical views on global economic governance and on globalization. In Globalization and its Discontents (2002), Stiglitz argued that the IMF had imposed policies on developing countries that often exacerbated, rather than relieved, balance-of-payments crises, being designed more to help banking and financial interests in the developed world than to alleviate poverty. In Making Globalization Work (2006), he linked globalization to ‘Americanization’, environmental degradation, a ‘roll-back’ of democracy and a widening of development disparities, calling instead for stronger and more transparent international institutions to expand economic opportunities and prevent financial crises. Stiglitz’s other main works include Whither Socialism? (1996), The Roaring Nineties (2003) and Freefall (2010).

Susan Strange (1923–98)
UK academic and leading exponent of international political economy. A selfdescribed ‘new realist’, Strange made contributions in a number of areas. Her idea of structural power challenged the prevalent realist theory of power and reframed the debate, fashionable in the 1980s, about US decline and its implications. In States and Markets (1988), Strange analyzed the growing ascendancy of the market over political authority since the 1970s, an idea further developed in The Retreat of the State (1996), in which she declared that ‘state authority has leaked away, upwards, sideways and downwards’. In Casino Capitalism (1997) and Mad Money (1998), Strange examined the instability and volatility of market-based economies, particularly in the light of innovations in the way in which financial markets work.


Thucydides (ca. 460–406 BCE)
Greek historian with philosophical interests. Thucydides’ great work The History of the Peloponnesian War recounts the struggle between Athens and Sparta for control of the Hellenic world, 431–404 BCE, which culminated in the destruction of Athens, the birthplace of democracy. He explained this conflict in terms of the dynamics of power politics and the relative power of the rival city-states. As such, he developed the first sustained realist explanation of international conflict and, arguably, propounded the earliest theory of international relations. His dark view of human nature influenced Hobbes (see p. 14). In the Melian dialogue, Thucydides showed how power politics is indifferent to moral argument, a lesson sometimes taken to be a universal truth.

J. Ann Tickner (born 1937)
A US academic and feminist international relations theorist. An exponent of standpoint feminism, Tickner has exposed ways in which the conventional study of international relations marginalizes gender, whilst also being itself gendered. Her best known book, Gender in International Relations (1992a), highlights the biases and limitations of the masculinized, geo-political version of national security, demonstrating that it may enhance rather than reduce the insecurity of individuals and showing how peace, economic justice and ecological sustainability are vital to women’s security. Although she argues that gender relations shape the search for knowledge, Tickner’s ultimate goal is to transcend gender by overcoming gender inequality. Her other works include ‘Hans Morgenthau’s Principles of Political Realism: A Feminist Reformulation’ (1988) and ‘Feminist Perspectives on 9/11’ (2002).


Immanuel Wallerstein (born 1930)
US sociologist and pioneer of world-systems theory. Influenced by neo-Marxist dependency theory and the ideas of the French historian Fernand Braudel (1902–85), Wallerstein argues that the modern world-system is characterized by an international division of labour between the ‘core’ and the ‘periphery’. Core regions benefit from the concentration of capital in its most sophisticated forms, while peripheral ones are dependent on the export of raw materials to the core, although fundamental contradictions will ultimately bring about the demise of the world-system.Wallerstein also traces the rise and decline of core hegemons (dominant powers) to changes in the world-system over time, arguing that the end of the Cold War marks the decline, not triumph, of the US hegemony.Wallerstein’s key works include the three-volume The Modern World System (1974, 1980, 1989), Geopolitics and Geoculture (1991) and Decline of American Power (2003).

Kenneth Waltz (born 1924)
US international relations theorist.Waltz’s initial contribution to international relations, outlined in Man, the State, and War (1959), adopted a conventional realist approach and remains the basic starting point for the analysis of war. His Theory of International Politics (1979) was the most influential book of international relations theory of its generation, establishing Waltz as the successor to Morgenthau in the discipline. Ignoring human nature and the ethics of statecraft, Waltz used systems theory to explain how international anarchy effectively determines the actions of states, with change in the international system occurring through changes in the distribution of capabilities between and amongst states.Waltz’s analysis was closely associated with the Cold War and the belief that bipolarity is more stable and provides a better guarantee of peace and security than does multipolarity.

Michael Walzer (born 1935)
A Jewish US political philosopher,Walzer has made major contributions to thinking about the ethics of war. In Just and Unjust Wars ([1977] 2006), he developed a just war theory based on the ‘legalist paradigm’, which draws parallels between the rights and responsibilities of the individual and those of political communities (understood as states). This implies that states may defend themselves against aggression, possibly through pre-emptive attack (just wars), but that aggression in pursuit of selfinterest is ruled out (unjust wars). Walzer also acknowledged that a ‘supreme emergency’ (stemming from an imminent and overriding threat to a nation) may require that ‘the rules are set aside’, and defended humanitarian intervention.Walzer’s other key texts include Spheres of Justice (1983) and Arguing about War (2004).

Alexander Wendt (born 1958)
German-born international relations theorist who has worked mainly in the USA. Wendt is a meta-theorist who has used constructivist analysis to provide a critique of both neorealism and neoliberalism. He accepts that states are the primary units of analysis for international political theory, but urges that states and their interests should not be taken for granted. The key structures of the state-system are ‘intersubjective’ rather than material, in that states act on the basis of identities and interests that are socially constructed. Wendt therefore argues that neorealism and neoliberalism are defective because both fail to take account of the self-understandings of state actors. Wendt’s key writings include ‘The Agent-Structure Problem in International Relations Theory’ (1987), ‘Anarchy is What States Make of It’ (1992) and Social Theory of International Politics (1999).

Woodrow Wilson (1856–1924)
US President, 1913–21. The son of a Presbyterian minister,Wilson was the president of Princeton University, 1902–10, before serving as the Democratic Governor of New Jersey, 1911–13, and being elected President in 1912.Wilson initially kept the USA out of WWI, but felt compelled to enter the war in April 1917 to make the world ‘safe for democracy’.Wilson’s idealistic internationalism, sometimes called ‘Wilsonianism’, was most clearly reflected in the Fourteen Points he laid out in a speech to Congress in January 1918, as the basis for an enduring peace. These expressed the ideas of national self-determination, open agreements and an end to secret diplomacy, freedom of trade and navigation, disarmament and collective security achieved through a ‘general association of nations’.Wilsonian liberalism is usually associated with the idea that a world of democratic nation-states, modelled on the USA, is the surest means of preventing war.

Martin Wight (1913–72)
A UK international relations theorist,Wight’s best known book, International Theory: The Three Traditions (1991), advanced the idea that international theory can be divided into the ‘three Rs’ – realism, revolutionism and rationalism. While realism views international politics as a zero-sum struggle for power, revolutionism highlights deep tension between the dynamics of the state-system and the real interests of individual citizens. Rationalism stands between these extremes, advancing the idea that, as social creatures, humans forge societies that are regulated by reciprocal rights and obligations. International society is therefore neither chaotic and necessarily violent nor blissfully peaceful.