Global Politics

by Andrew Heywood

Weblinks

General sites

BBC
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world/
BBC news provides twenty four hour coverage of recent events around the world.

CNN
www.cnn.com
CNN also provides twenty four hour news coverage, but from an American rather than British standpoint.

The Economist
http://www.economist.com/
Interesting news analysis and blogs for a liberal perspective on current affairs.

CIA World Factbook:
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html
Up-to-date general information on countries around the world.

http://www.politicsresources.net/official.htm
This website provides official government web pages listed by country

Wikipedia
www.wikipedia.org
Although this website does not always provide the most accurate information, it is sometimes a useful source for references or general background information.

BBC World Service World Lectures: challenging the global order
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/people/features/world_lectures/
This site provides access to the full-text of a series of four lectures on globalization and international relations which were broadcast by the BBC World Service. They include: Dr Hanan Ashrawi on globalization and its impact on issues of power and sovereignty; Professor Ali Mazrui on western culture in an age of globalisation, Dr Sergei Karaganov on relations between Russia and the West and Kishore Mahbubani on relations between the western and non-western world. All lectures are available in audio or textual formats for downloading.


Chapter 1 – INTRODUCTION TO GLOBAL POLITICS

Third World Traveler
http://thirdworldtraveler.com/
This website provides access to documents and articles covering a wide range of issues concerning globalization.

Royal Institute of International Affairs
http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/
Research and news analysis on international affairs (focus on Development, Economy and Security)

Leviathan
http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/3207
Link to the full text of Hobbes' Leviathan (other editions available elsewhere)

Kant Archive
http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/ethics/kant/index.htm
Archive of Kant's political writings

Perpetual Peace
www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm
Kant's Perpetual Peace; another important work on international relations


Chapter 2 – HISTORICAL CONTEXT

Avalon Project at Yale Law School
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/default.asp
The Avalon Project aims to provide access to documents relating to law, history, economics, politics, diplomacy and government over the internet.

Parallel History Project
http://www.php.isn.ethz.ch/collections/coll_wapa/intro.cfm?navinfo=15697
Publications and documents on the Warsaw Pact as well as other major events and features of the Cold War.

Diary of Anatoly Chernyaev
http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB345/index.htm
Anatoly Chernyaev was a senior advisor to Gorbachev. This resource is from the National Security Archive, an independent research institute and library for declassified documents from the US government.

Woodrow Wilson Centre to International Scholars
http://www.wilsoncenter.org/
Contains a variety of resources for historical events (see cold war international history project) as well as international current affairs news and analysis.


Chapter 3 – THEORIES OF GLOBAL POLITICS

http://www.theory-talks.org
An interactive forum for discussion of debates in International Relations with an emphasis on the underlying theoretical issues.

International Political Sociology section of the International Studies Association
http://ips-isa.org/
Includes a wealth of resources on debates surrounding globalization, including journals, further web links, opinions and news.

Conversations with History
http://conversations.berkeley.edu/
Harry Kreisler, Director of the Institute of International Studies at the University Of California, Berkeley, conducts interviews with key figures from the spectrum of global political theory.

For Social constructivist views, search Mead, Haas, Benhabib and Koh in the conversations with history search bar.

For Realists search: Kenneth Waltz in Conversations with History.

http://www.ssrc.org/features/view/back-to-the-future-of-political-realism/
This Social Science Research Council site contains an interview on the persisting role of political realism.

Back to the Future of Political Realism
http://www.ssrc.org/features/view/back-to-the-future-of-political-realism/
An interview on the persisting role of political realism with Nicolas Guilhot.

Open Democracy News Forum
http://www.opendemocracy.net/
World news analysis from a liberal perspective.

The Cato Institute
http://www.cato.org/
A public policy research institute with a neoliberal agenda.

Marxist Internet Archive
http://www.marxists.org/archive/
Library of Marxist documents for a critical perspective on global issues.

International Forum on Globalization
www.ifg.org
A North-South research and educational institution composed of leading activists, economists, scholars, and researchers providing analysis and critiques on the cultural, social, political, and environmental impacts of economic globalization.

Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/critical-theory/
An introduction to critical theory. Stanford Encyclopaedia is a highly useful resource for many of the theories discussed in this chapter.

New Left Review
http://newleftreview.org/
A monthly journal for articles on debates within global politics from critical perspectives, particularly postcolonial.


Chapter 4 – THE ECONOMY IN A GLOBAL AGE

World Economic Forum
http://www.weforum.org/
Independent international forum with news reports and articles on the debates surrounding global economics.

Peter G. Peterson Institute for International Economics
http://www.piie.com/
Independent, non-profit, non-partisan American research institution devoted to the study of international economic policy, especially in anticipating emerging issues and offering "practical ideas, presented in user-friendly formats, to inform and shape public debate." Many working papers, policy briefs, speeches, testimonies, and so forth are online.

Brookings Institution
http://www.brookings.edu/Economy.aspx
A highly regarded public policy organisation providing research into public policy, with a focus on economic policy.

Finance and Development
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2011/06/index.htm
The quarterly magazine of the IMF publishes articles on International Economics and Global development.

ESDS International
http://www.esds.ac.uk/international/support/user_guides/imf/dots.asp
A step-by step guide through the most up-to-date statistics on the direction of global trade, published by the IMF.


Chapter 5 – The State and Foreign Policy in a Global Age

Foreign Affairs Online
http://people.virginia.edu/~rjb3v/rjb.html
World news and links to useful websites and information.

Foreign Policy Research Institute
http://www.fpri.org/
A non-profit organization "devoted to bringing the insights of scholarship to bear on the development of policies that advance U.S. national interests". Researches and publishes work on a variety of issues within foreign policy, including relations with the Middle East, China, Russia, Japan, nuclear proliferation as well as the war on terror.

Council on Foreign Relations
http://www.cfr.org/
An independent non-partisan membership organization dedicated to promoting the understanding of foreign policy choices facing the US and other countries. The website contains publications and expert opinion examining foreign policy initiatives and theories.

The G20
http://www.g20.org/
Group of Twenty homepage.

Carleton's Country Indicators for Foreign Policy Project
http://www.carleton.ca/cifp/
A project to enable international engagement with failed and fragile states by investigating the causes of state failure and a framework within which these can be addressed by the international community.


Chapter 6 – SOCIETY IN A GLOBAL AGE

World Social Forum - Charter of Principles
http://www.forumsocialmundial.org.br/main.php?id_menu=4&cd_language=2
A network forum for NGOs and other civil society organisations formed to discuss issues facing the world today, which is critical of the dominance of neoliberalism in global politics.

'Global Civil Society: Changing the World?'
http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/2094/1/WRAP_Scholte_wp3199.pdf
A paper by Jan Aart Scholte which examines the nature and significance of global civil society.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/profile/ulrichbeck
Articles written by Ulrich Beck on issues relating to global society

Institute for Public Policy Research
http://www.ippr.org/
A progressive think tank which aims to promote a democratic world society through policy innovations.

Google Corporation
http://www.google.co.uk/corporate/
The corporate website of Google, which covers their company philosophy, business overview and the technology they use.

NGO Branch of the UN Secretariat
http://esango.un.org/civilsociety/login.do
Provides relevant advice and information concerning NGOs to representatives of the United Nations system, Member States and civil society.

'NGOs and Social Movements: A North/South Divide?'
https://www.transcend.org/db/?q=Alejandro+Bendana
An article on global social movements.

Global Issues
http://www.globalissues.org/issue/235/consumption-and-consumerism
Recent statistics on global consumption and inequalities.


Chapter 7 – THE NATION IN A GLOBAL AGE

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nationalism/
Use this link to access an article on the nature and varieties of nationalism, as well as moral debates about it.

Scalibrini Centre for Migration Studies
http://www.smc.org.ph/
The site gives access to research, specialized publications - including periodical, monographs and papers - conferences and other educational activities devoted to deepening understanding of migration in several aspects.

International Affairs
http://www.suite101.com/content/does-nationalism-conflict-with-multiculturalism-a210829
By Suite 101 – an introduction to the debate about whether multiculturalism is compatible with nationalism .

'Western nationalism and Eastern Nationalism'
http://newleftreview.org/A2320
Article by Benedict Anderson on nationalism in Asia and Europe.

The Nationalism Project
http://www.nationalismproject.org/
Provides users with a clearinghouse of scholarly nationalism information including: leading definitions of nationalism, book reviews, web links, subject bibliographies, a bibliography of more than 2,000 journal articles.

History Transnational
http://geschichte-transnational.clio-online.net/transnat.asp
Specialist forum on the history of cultural transfer and the interweaving of transnational relationships in Europe and the world

Migration Policy Institute (MPI)
http://www.migrationpolicy.org/
MPI is an independent, nonpartisan, non-profit think tank dedicated to the study of the movement of people worldwide. The site allows to access the MPI's newsletter Migration Information Source (http://www.migrationinformation.org) and the Institutes' Immigration Data Hub (http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/), which offers immigration statistics, maps for the United States and other countries around the world.

International Migration and Development, World Bank
http://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/EXTPROGRAMS/
EXTTRADERESEARCH/0,,contentMDK:23074136~pagePK:64168182~piPK:64168060~
theSitePK:544849,00.html

The World Bank's International Migration and Development site provides insight into the Bank's initiatives and research activities and it presents working papers and books published by the Bank's research teams.

United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)
http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home
The official UNHCR site provides extensive information on the agency, its mission statement, its initiatives throughout the world, comprehensive collections of refugee- and asylum-related documents (RefWorld online).The site also provides access to UNHCR Statistical Online Population Database, its Statistical Yearbook, Global Trends, including detailed information on asylum and refugee trends and indicators for more than 100 refugee camps (Standards and Indicators Project).


Chapter 8 – IDENTITY, CULTURE AND CHALLENGES TO THE WEST

University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries
http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/us/arabisrael.htm
US and international information on the Arab-Israeli conflict comprehensive library of documents as well as timelines and short analyses include

Reframing the Israel-Palestine conflict
http://www.newint.org/features/web-exclusive/2011/04/01/palestine-israel-interview-pappe/
Interview with Ilan Pappe, an Israeli professor of History and activist, by Frank Barat, coordinator of the Russell Tribunal on Palestine.

MidEastWeb Gateway
http://www.mideastweb.org
News and opinions on political developments in the Middle East.

Al-Jazeera
http://english.aljazeera.net/
Arabic-language satellite television network.

Centre on Islam, Democracy and the Future of the Muslim World
http://www.currenttrends.org/
This website provides access to a number of resources on Islamist ideology, with a mission to promote democracy and moderate ideals within the Muslim world.

Official Website of Tariq Ramadan
http://www.tariqramadan.com/An-International-call-for.html?lang=en
Tariq Ramadan is a leading Muslim reformist in Europe who advocates the adaptation of Islam to local cultural conditions.


Chapter 9 – POWER AND TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY WORLD ORDER

Noam Chomsky
http://chomsky.info/
The Chomsky Info site provides access to books, article, interviews, talks and other material related to Chomsky and his views.

http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/index.html?groupby=6&=&filter=3
Publications by Joseph S. Nye.

'The USA, World Hegemony, and Cold War II'
http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/New_World_Order/US_Hegemony.html
Paper on relations between the USA, Russia and China in the Post-Cold War period.

LSE IDEAS
www2.lse.ac.uk/IDEAS/Home.aspx
The centre for the study of international affairs, diplomacy and grand strategy with the aim of understanding how today's world came into being.


Chapter 10 – WAR AND PEACE

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
http://www.nato.int/
This website provides access to the history and development of the alliance, member countries and in-depth analysis of current challenges and the direction of global security.

Just War Theory
www.justwartheory.com
Contains a wide range of materials related to the idea of a just war and related issues. Just War Theory is owned and maintained by Mark Rigstad, Associate Professor of Philosophy at Oakland University.

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
www.sipri.org
Use this website to gain information on weapons developments, arms transfers and production, military spending and arms control and disarmament. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute is funded conducts research on questions of conflict and cooperation in order to promote international peace and security.

International Crisis Group
http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm
An independent, non-profit, non-governmental organization that works to prevent and resolve conflicts around the globe. Filled with links to reports on twenty-first-century military conflicts.

Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies
http://www.ipcs.org/
The Institute conducts independent research on conventional and non-conventional security issues in the region and shares its findings with policy makers and the public. It provides a forum for discussion with the strategic community on strategic issues and strives to explore alternatives. Contains special reports, briefs, articles and working papers on a variety of issues to do with conflict in a globalized world.

International Relations and Security Network
http://www.isn.ethz.ch/
Use this to access an extensive digital library with publications concerning a number of issues to do with war and peace, as well as useful links and other resources.

Peace Research Institute Oslo
http://prio.no/
An independent non-profit research institution whose overarching purpose is to conduct research on the conditions for peaceful relations between states, groups and people.

The Clausewitz homepage
http://www.clausewitz.com/#TOC
Dedicated to Prussian military thinker Carl von Clausewitz. This site has a wealth of information on most issues on war, peace and human security.


Chapter 11 – NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION AND DISARMAMENT

International Atomic Energy Agency
www.iaea.org
Use the IAEA website to find out information about attempts to contain nuclear proliferation under the NPT. The IAEA was set up in 1957 as the world's 'Atoms for Peace' organization within the UN.

Arms Control Association
www.armscontrol.org
Use this website for up-to-date information on issues related to arms control. The Arms Control Association is a non-profit, membership-based organization, located in Washington.

Journal USA
http://www.america.gov/media/pdf/ejs/0210.pdf
A US state department e-journal examining Obama's strategy to reduce stockpiles of nuclear weapons, based on the idea of a post-nuclear world.

The Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy
http://www.acronym.org.uk/
The website provides reporting, analysis and strategic thinking on a range of issues relevant to peace and security, with special emphasis on treaties and multilateral initiatives.

Centre for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction
http://wmdcenter.dodlive.mil/
Examines the challenges posed by nuclear, biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction to US and international security. It contains a wealth of documents and other publications on nuclear proliferation.


Chapter 12 – TERRORISM

Peterson Institute of Economics
http://www.petersoninstitute.org/research/topics/sanctions/casestudy.cfm
Use this link to access special case studies of economic sanctions and terrorism.

9/11 Commission Report
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/sept11/911Report.pdf
A breakdown of the factors leading up to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and policy recommendations for a global strategy to prevent further attacks.

The Global Terrorism Database
http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/
An open-source database including information on terrorist events around the world from 1970 through 2008 (with annual updates planned for the future).

Centre for a New American Security
http://www.cnas.org/about
As well as hosting a blog with some interesting commentary on contemporary insurgency and global terrorism, the CNAS provides an extensive list of links to useful resources for students of the subject.

Combating Terrorism Centre
http://www.ctc.usma.edu/
Independent research institute at West Point that "informs and shapes counter-terrorism policy and strategy". Use this site for access to influential reports and analysis on global terrorist trends, much of which is based on captured, translated and declassified documents.


Chapter 13 – HUMAN RIGHTS AND HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION

Human Rights Council home page
http://www.ohchr.org/en/hrbodies/hrc/pages/hrcindex.aspx
A good place to start for research into international conventions on human rights and humanitarian intervention.

UN Charter and Universal Declaration of Human Rights
http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/
A major international agreement, most countries have incorporated some version of this declaration into their own national law.

International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty
http://responsibilitytoprotect.org/ICISS%20Report.pdf
Use this website to access the ICISS's 2001 report The Responsibility to Protect.l

Global Policy Forum
http://www.globalpolicy.org/qhumanitarianq-intervention.html
Provides access to a wide range of articles, reports and speeches about humanitarian intervention, mainly from a critical perspective. The Global Policy Forum monitors policy-making at the UN, acting as an advocacy group on issues of international peace and justice.

C.A.J. Coady
http://www.usip.org/publications/the-ethics-armed-humanitarian-intervention
Use this website to access a summary of the arguments advance in 'The Ethics of Armed Humanitarian Intervention' by the Australian philosopher C.A.J. Coady.

Amnesty International
http://www.amnesty.org/
Gives extensive documentation of Amnesty's advocacy efforts as well as a wealth of independent research publications and links to other useful resources.

Human Rights Watch
http://www.hrw.org/
Contains a wealth of resources on human rights and abuses around the world, as well as the organisation's advocacy efforts.

Minority Rights Group International
http://www.minorityrights.org/
Provides similar resources to Amnesty and Human Rights Watch.

International Committee of the Red Cross
http://www.icrc.org/
http://www.icrc.org/eng/who-we-are/history/index.jsp
The ICRC is one of the oldest international NGOs. Its aim is to provide humanitarian assistance to victims of armed conflict and strife. There is a full account of its history and mission on its website.


Chapter 14 – INTERNATIONAL LAW

United Nations
http://www.un.org/
Website of the United Nations, includes information about all UN bodies and councils, as well as its international charters and information on its institutions and processes.

International Criminal Court
http://www.icc-cpi.int/en_menus/icc/Pages/default.aspx
Gives information about the structure and processes of the court as well as information on cases and reports on the court's recent activities.

International Court of justice
http://www.icj-cij.org/homepage/index.php?lang=en
Provides information about the court's role and powers, as well as reports on high profile cases and links to useful publications.

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/grotius/
An introduction to the work of Hugo Grotius.

Nuremberg Trials Project
http://nuremberg.law.harvard.edu/php/docs_swi.php?DI=1&text=overview#
The Harvard Law School Library has digitised one million pages of documents relating to the Nuremberg Trials. Use this for a wealth of primary sources, including trial transcripts, briefs and evidence files.

Nuremberg: Nazis on Trial
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/nuremberg_article_01.shtml#one
A series of articles published by the BBC on the Nuremberg trials.

The Tufts University Fletcher School's Multilaterals Project
fletcher.tufts.edu/multilaterals.html
Use this website to access the texts of multilateral conventions.


Chapter 15 – POVERTY AND DEVELOPMENT

OneWorld
http://uk.oneworld.net/guides/poverty/briefings?gclid=com196zz15sCFZ0U4wodLEPQAQ
Use this website to access maps and data on the progress of poverty reduction for over 60 developing countries.

Oxfam International
http://www.oxfam.org/
This website provides information to Oxfam's activities to reduce poverty as well as blogs and news features on the causes of poverty and international development progress.

UN Human Development Reports
http://hdr.undp.org/en/
For statistics and analysis of international development, either as a cross-sectional analysis of development indicators, or country-specific reports.

IMF Country reports
http://www.imf.org/external/country/index.htm
Reports and publications arranged by country. Use this for information on economic indicators for each country

UN Millenium Goals
http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/
Contains targets, progress reports and development statistics as well as information on the Summit on the Millenium Development Goals 2010.

Robinson Rojas Archive
http://www.rrojasdatabank.info/nuevonew.htm
http://www.rrojasdatabank.info/agfrank.htm
Provide access to writing on theories of development from a political economy perspective.

Global Doubts and Global Solutions
http://realvoice.blogspot.co.uk/2004/11/global-doubts-as-global-solutions.html
Transcript of a speech by Amartya Sen on global development for the Alfred Deakin Lecture Series 2011.

Publications by Joseph Stiglitz
http://www2.gsb.columbia.edu/faculty/jstiglitz/articles.cfm
Collection of articles on economics and globalization by the well-known Nobel Laureate.

2007 Reith Lectures - Jeffrey Sachs
http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/reith2007/lecture5.shtml
Podcasts of the BBC Radio Four's Reith lectures are available, in which Jeffrey Sachs addresses various issues relating to globalization. Lecture 5 is particularly relevant to this chapter.


Chapter 16 – GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

Earth Portal
http://communities.earthportal.org/
A comprehensive resource for timely, objective, science-based information about the environment.

Ecolex
http://www.ecolex.org/start.php
Provides several large databases of national and international legal instruments and materials related to environmental management, which are searchable by subject area, keyword, country, or date.

Environmental Performance Index
http://epi.yale.edu/
Presents interactive results of collaboration between Yale and Columbia Universities to bring a data-driven, fact-based empirical approach to environmental protection and global sustainability.

Convention on Biological Diversity
http://www.cbd.int
International treaty to sustain the rich diversity of life on Earth. The website provides access to current environmental news analysis and policy recommendations.

International Institute for Sustainable Development
http://www.iisd.org/
Use this website to access reports on particular themes relating to environmental preservation as well as books, articles and papers on various issues within sustainable development.

Earth Institute
http://www.earth.columbia.edu/articles/view/1791
Comprising 30 research centres and 850 scientists working over a vast array of disciplines, the Earth Institute aims to provide research and policy recommendations on environmental preservation and sustainable development. There are also further publications by its director, Jeffrey Sachs.

Greenpeace
http://www.greenpeace.org/international/
This website contains a wealth of information on their own activities as well as news analysis with a specific focus on environmental issues.

Friends of the Earth
http://www.foei.org/
Use this website for news analysis and interesting discussion of environmental policy.


Chapter 17 – GENDER AND GLOBAL POLITICS

Women for Women International
www.womenforwomen.org
Use the Women for Women International website to access news, reports and analysis about women survivors of war, civil strife and other conflicts.

World Economic Forum
http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2013.pdf
Provides access to the World Economic Forum's The Global Gender Gap Report 2013.

WomanWatch
http://www.un.org/womenwatch/
This is a central gateway to information and resources on the promotion of sexual equality and the empowerment of women through the UN system.

Bora Laskin Law Library
http://library.law.utoronto.ca/%3Cfront%3E/womens-human-rights-resources-programme-whrr
Use the website of the Women's Human Rights Resources programme at the Bora Laskin Law Library to access a wide range of resources, articles, documents and links related to international women's rights.

World Bank section on Gender and Development
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/gender
Contains news, reports and data about gender and development.

Woman Stats
http://www.womanstats.org/
A detailed compilation of statistics and data on the status of women in 174 countries as well as videos and blogs on the issues facing women in he globalised world.

Development Alternatives for Women of a New Era
http://www.dawnnet.org/about.php?page=us
DAWNnet provides a forum for feminist research, analyses and advocacy on global issues (economic, social and political) affecting the livelihoods, living standards, rights and development prospects of women, especially poor and marginalized women, in regions of the South.


Chapter 18 – INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION AND THE UNITED NATIONS

United Nations
www.un.org
Contains information about the history and development of the UN from the League of Nations, as well as its governance, structure and information on current policies and debates.

UN Charter
http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/index.shtml
Use this UN website to access a full version of the UN Charter.

UN Iraq Resolution 2003
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3012847.stm
Access the full text from this website to see the contrast between this and the unilateral actions taken by the USA.

Robert Keohane
http://www.princeton.edu/~rkeohane/publications.html
Publications by the US International Relations theorist.


Chapter 19 – GLOBAL GOVERNANCE AND THE BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM

World Bank
www.worldbank.org
For up-to-date information on current activities and reports on the global economy.

World Trade Organisation
www.wto.org
Gives information on current activities as well as reports and analysis of international trade and property law.

International Monetary Fund
www.imf.org
For information on current activities as well as detailed statistics and reports on country development and the global economy, as well as world news analysis.

Exchange Rates
http://www.exchangerates.org.uk/
Provides information on the latest currency news, historical data, currency conversion and exchange rates, using mid-market rates which are updated by the minute.

Bank for International Settlements
http://www.bis.org/cbanks.htm
Website listing central banks from around the world.

Beyond the Washington Consensus
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2003/09/pdf/clift.pdf
Paper by Jeremy Clift on the future of global economic governance.

The Post-Washington Consensus
http://iis-db.stanford.edu/pubs/23124/foreignaffairs_postwashingtonconsensus.pdf
An article by Francis Fukuyuma for Foreign Affairs, March/April 2011.

Bretton Woods Project
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/
Critical analysis of the current activities of the World Bank and the IMF.

LSE Global governance
http://www2.lse.ac.uk/globalGovernance/HomePage.aspx
LSE Global Governance was founded by Lord Professor Meghnad Desai in 1992 as the Centre for the Study of Global Governance. This website provides access to extensive research resources and publications analysing the concept of global governance and issues within it.


Chapter 20 – REGIONALISM AND GLOBAL POLITICS

Association of South East Asian nations (ASEAN)
http://www.asean.org/
Official website with information on history, institutions and structure as well as resources on policy initiatives and recent developments within the region

African Union
http://www.au.int/en/
Information on the history and development of the African Union, as well as news on current activities, analysis of current affairs and policy initiatives.

Organisation of American States
http://www.oas.org/en/default.asp
Information on structure, member states and policy initiatives of OAS, as well as featured news analysis

European Union
http://europa.eu/index_en.htm
This is the official website of the EU; use it to gain information on the history, policies, conventions, processes and institutions of the EU.

League of Arab States
http://www.arableagueonline.org/las/index_en.jsp
Information on member states, the organisation and current activities

North American Free trade Association
http://www.naftanow.org/dispute/default_en.asp
Information on the agreement and the association.

Mercosur (South American Trade Bloc)
http://www.mercosur.int/
The official website for Mercosur is only in Spanish or Portuguese. For information on the organisation and structure of the bloc, as well as information on members and populations, see http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/5195834.stm

Shanghai Cooperation Organization
http://www.sectsco.org/EN123/
Information on member states, observer states and partners, as well as news on current activities and a chronicle of the main events for each year, and publications on issues facing members.

Secretariat of the Pacific Community
http://www.spc.int/
Information on the community and its members as well as the organisation and structure of the secretariat.

The Nordic Council
http://www.norden.org/en
Information on the Council, its member states and their current activities. There is also analysis of recent events relevant to the Council.


Chapter 21 – WHY THEORY MATTERS

http://www.theory-talks.org
An interactive forum for discussion of debates in International Relations with an emphasis on the underlying theoretical issues.

International Political Theory
http://international-political-theory.net/
The International Political Theory site is run by and for academics to support and promote the study of international political theory.

IR Theory
www.irtheory.com
The International Relations (IR) Theory site is an online resource for students, scolars and other professional interested in IR theory and research.

Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/truth-identity
A discussion of the identity theory of truth, which is widely understood as a reaction to the correspondence theory of truth.

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/epistemology-social
A discussion of the social dimension of knowledge.

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/critical-theory/
An introduction to Frankfurt School critical theory

International Studies Association
www.isanet.org
The website of the International Studies Association, including a gateway to useful resources for theorists.

John Searle
http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~jsearle/articles.html
A site that provides access to articles by the philosopher John Searle, including an important article on social ontology.

http://polisciprof.blogspot.com/2006/03/some-thoughts-on-poststructuralism-in.html
An article on the merits of poststructuralism in IR theory


Chapter 22 – GLOBAL FUTURES

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/world-government
Use this website to access an article on debates about world government from the Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy.

Francis Fukuyama's Personal Website
http://fukuyama.stanford.edu/
Biographical information as well as a list of publications.

Foreign Affairs – Hedley Bull
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/author/hedley-bull
This link provides access to articles written by or about Hedley Bull on international society.

A Clash of Civilizations?
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/48950/samuel-p-huntington/the-clash-of-civilizations
Samuel P. Huntington summarises his thesis on the 'clash of civilisations' and the future of cultural conflict.