Foundations of Nursing Practice

Themes, concepts and frameworks, fourth edition

by Richard Hogston and Barbara Marjoram

Part two: Nursing Interventions

Part two ‘enters’ the clinical context of practice introducing key areas of nursing intervention from across the lifespan.

Each of the nine chapters is listed below, along with chapter summaries, author profiles, and links to useful online resources related to the chapter content. Don’t forget to try out the interactive ‘Test-Yourself!’ questions too!

Chapter Five: Infection Control; Somduth Parboteeah

This chapter describes the policies and principles which nurses must follow to prevent health care associated infections (HCAI). It focuses on the practical aspects of reducing HCAI, such as MRSA, in the day to day management of patients by following evidence based guidelines. About the author
Somduth Parboteeah PhD, MSc, SRN, RCNT, Cert Ed, Dip N (London) is Principal Lecturer in the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences at De Montfort University, UK. He is also Programme Leader for the MSc Advanced Health and Professional Practice.

Chapter Six: Administration of Medications; Somduth Parboteeah

Chapter 6 describes some of the key aspects of safe practice in the administration of medicines. It highlights how the healthcare practitioner is responsible for assessing, planning, implementing and evaluating drug therapies, as well as educating patients about their drug regimens. It explains that an effective practitioner must have an understanding of the fundamental principles of drug action, the purposes of drug use and the actions necessary to bring about beneficial outcomes. By applying the principles described in this chapter, the healthcare practitioner can ensure that procedures are carried out safely, that patients are not harmed and that their care is optimized. About the author
Somduth Parboteeah PhD, MSc, SRN, RCNT, Cert Ed, Dip N (London) is Principal Lecturer in the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences at De Montfort University, UK. He is also Programme Leader for the MSc Advanced Health and Professional Practice.

Chapter Seven: Eating and Drinking; Sue M. Green

Chapter 7 reviews the basic concepts of nutritional science. It explains the process of nutritional care, involving screening and assessing nutritional status, planning and implementing nutritional interventions and evaluating care given. About the Author
Sue M. Green RN, BSc, MMedSci, PhD, PGCert has a BSc and Master’s degree in science subjects and a PhD in biopsychology. She is currently a Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, UK.

Chapter Eight: Elimination; Barbara Marjoram

This chapter explores both the urinary and faecal elements of elimination. It explains the normal anatomy and physiology and then identifies the abnormal processes of and influences on elimination. It explores possible treatments, the advice available and nursing care for the conditions identified. Chapter 8 helps help to dispel some taboos and myths about elimination, with a healthy emphasis on achieving and attaining relative normality across the life span. About the Author
Barbara Marjoram TD, MA, RN(A), Cert Ed is a Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton. Her previous publications have included the use of information technology in nursing, enquiry-based learning and elimination.

Chapter Nine: Respiration; Jan Dean, Pam Diggens and Rob Haywood

Chapter 9 explores the nurse’s role in assessing and implementing the care of clients with difficulties of breathing. It provides an overview of the physiology and pathophysiology of the respiration system. About the Authors
Jan Dean, BA(Hons), DipN, RGN is a Lecturer in adult nursing at University of Southampton with an interest in respiratory nursing.

Pam Diggens BSc(Hons), MA, RN is a Lecturer at the University of Southampton, UK, with a specific interest in physical assessment and history taking.

Rob Haywood MSc, PGCE, RN is a Lecturer at the University of Southampton with a specific interest in critical care and advanced life support.

Chapter Ten: Circulation; Chris Walker

Chapter 10 explains the purpose of the circulatory system. It focusses upon the common disease processes which affect the circulatory system and details nursing assessments and interventions which are utilised when caring for patients. It also highlights the importance of nursing staff being able to detect life threatening situations, such as cardiac arrest and shock, and to initiate resuscitative measures. About the Author
Chris Walker MSc, BSc(Hons), DipHE RN is a Consultant Nurse working in the Emergency Department of Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth.

Chapter Eleven: Wound Management; Pam Jackson, Lynn Taylor and Nadia Chambers

The effective management of wounds and the prevention of pressure ulcers is a complex area of care, involving integrated and systematic assessment, the identification of problems, and the planning, implementation and evaluation of nursing interventions. This chapter gives an overview of the elements underpinning the principles of wound healing and management. It highlights the central role of the nurse; the importance of ongoing, evidence-based education to inform decision-making in practice and the value of reflection as a way of evaluating experiences. It also introduces a wide range of tools, frameworks and guidelines available to assist in making a professional judgement. About the Authors
Pam Jackson MPhil, BSc (Hons), RGN, RHV, RNT, is Senior Lecturer and Academic Lead for Interprofessional Learning at the Universities of Southampton and Portsmouth.

Lynn Taylor PGC,BSc (Hons) RN, RM is the Lead Clinical Nurse Specialist in Tissue Viability. Lynn initiated the Tissue Viability service in Portsmouth before moving to Southampton to set up the service there. She lectures for the university and the Trust.

Nadia Chambers RGN, BSc(Hons), PgDipEd, MA, PhD is a Consultant Nurse for Older People at Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust.

Chapter Twelve: Moving and Handling; Wayne Arnett and Kevin Humphreys

This chapter explores the concepts inherent within moving and handling in the healthcare arena and daily life activities. It highlights the incredible importance of moving and handling procedures and also raises awareness that difficulty of movement and mobility affects not only the client, but also has an impact on nurses and how they aid and handle clients. About the Authors
Wayne Arnett BN(Hons), RGN, Cert Mang, is a Lecturer at the University of Southampton, UK and the lead for Moving and Handling in the Faculty of Health Sciences.

Kevin Humphrys RNLD. Cert Ed. MSc Applied Psychology (Learning Disabilities) is a Lecturer in Learning Disabilities at the University of Southampton and supports the lead for Moving and Handling in the Faculty of Health Sciences.

Chapter Thirteen: Dying, Death and Spirituality; Phil Russell

Chapter 13 explores death, dying, loss and bereavement. The chapter emphasises the individual nature of caring for people who are dying or bereaved and highlights that whether dealing with a dying child, an adult, older person, someone with mental health problems or a learning disability, each require their individual circumstances to be carefully considered. It also considers the role of religion and spirituality and how changes to health can make clients question or confirm their beliefs, particularly when life is limited.
About the Author
Phil Russell MSc, MA, BA(Hons), DipEd is a Lecturer Practitioner and Bereavement Service Co-ordinator at the Rowans Hospice.

Chapter Fourteen: Drug and Alcohol Misuse; Anita Green

Nurses often come into contact with people who use drugs and/or alcohol and therefore they play a vital role in the assessment, support, and treatment of their presenting health care needs. Chapter 14 discusses the nurse’s responsibility to understand substance misuse and to recognise the physical, psychological and social needs of the client. It also covers the legalities, policies, anxieties and complexities of caring in this area in order to aid decision-making and still offer person-centred care. About the Author
Anita Green D. Nursing, MA, BA(HONS), RCNT, RGN, RMN is a Dual Diagnosis Nurse Consultant working for Sussex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust and a visiting fellow with the School of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Brighton.