Researching Business and Management

A Roadmap For Success

by Harvey Maylor and Kate Blackmon

Glossary

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W |

Abstract

100-150 words that summarise what you are thinking of doing in your research project.

a brief overview of the research problem, argument, and themes of your project report.

Abstract conceptualization

extract concepts (or the key themes) from your data.

Active experimentation

seeing where a concept or group of concepts occurs

Analytic induction

a rigorous approach to testing hypotheses from qualitative data.

Axial coding

a process of building up a conceptual model from your open codes and categories.

Activity list

the list of major and minor activities involved in completing a miniproject or the overall project.

Action research

research where the researcher is involved in making a change and participating and observing the consequences

Acknowledgements

a list of thanks to anyone who has helped you with your research.

Anonymous scripts

where the examiner is unaware of the identity of the student or students who have submitted a project report.

Assessment

more of a craft than an exact science.

Assessment guidelines

the rules that examiners must follow when marking your project report.

Appendix

material that might be useful to understanding the report, but is not important enough to go in the main text.

Ad-hoc survey

a survey in which data are collected only once.

Archival research

research that focuses on secondary data, especially from archives.

Archive

a collection of documents, images, and other data in unprocessed form; especially a collection of documents or other artefacts that organisations or people create as part of their ongoing activities.

Backward scheduling

starting with a given completion date, and working backwards towards the start of the project (or today) to see how the activities that need to be completed in that time can be fitted in.

Back matter

materials included after the main body of the project report.

Bibliography

a list either of the resources that you consulted for the research project, or only those sources that you have actually cited in the main text; also known as a reference list.

Bivariate tests

tests of the relationships between pairs of variables.

Blind alleys

project directions that initially masquerade as interesting and relevant but ultimately will not help you solve your research problem or answer your research questions and so represent time wasted on interesting information or activities that will not contribute to your finished research project.

Blind marking
marking done independently by each examiner without knowledge of the other person's mark.

Brainstorming

a technique for generating and selecting ideas in a group by coming up with as many ideas as you can, without censoring them or subjecting them to critical review.

Buffer

the accumulated time savings or any time built into individual activities or the entire project to absorb late finishes.

Case

a single, bounded entity, studied in detail, with a variety of methods, over an extended period'.

Chart

a figure that presents relationships among two or more independent variables.

Closure

when you are confident that if you stop gathering data you will not miss anything new.

Cross-case analysis

looking for common patterns or significant variations across your cases.

Convenience sampling

choosing a sample based on ease of access.

Covert observation

observing people using surveillance technology or in semi-private or private settings in your project.

Critical subjectivity

avoiding getting so involved with the situation that you are unable to carry out the reflection necessary for it to be a useful piece of research.

Copyright library

a library that is enstrongd to a free copy of any book published within a country.

Copyright

limits the use of materials created by other people.

Cause-and-effect relationship

a change in one causes a change in another

Census

a survey in which data are collected from every member of the group being studied.

Closed-ended question

a question whose answers can be specified in advance.

Cues

hint or cues that your supervisor gives you about likes and dislikes, especially if he or she will be marking it.

Company-specific database

a database or data set that lists company names, sales, profits, geographic profiles, industry profiles, and other useful data.

Computer-assisted protocols for interviews

software for asking questions and recording responses directly on the computer, often with the capability to transfer them to the programme that you will use to analyse them.

Control

holding constant those factors you want to rule out as causing the changes in the output variable so that you can maximise your certainty that the changes are due to varying your input.

Control group

the group that gets no experimental treatment.

Comfort habits

the habits and rituals that many of us require before getting down to a major piece of work.

Conclusions

What more you know about this problem as a result of this research project.

Category

a significant group of concepts such as sources of ideas, drivers for ideas, or search process.

Codes

translating your respondent's language into your own language of concepts.

Code

a number that represents each of the possible responses to each question, whether it was originally in numerical or other form.

Coding

converting raw data to standardized responses using codes.

Correlation

the strength of the linear relationship between a pair of variables, for example the Pearson product-moment correlation.

Cold contacts

people who do not know you personally and with whom you have nothing in common.

Consultancy

giving advice to an organization, usually in return for money. A consultant can take on different roles.

Complete

you have kept all of your field notes, tapes, and transcripts.

Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software

ethnographic software used to manage the complexity of qualitative analysis, such as Ethnograph, QSR nVivo, and winMAX.

Concept

a descriptor for an issue, movement, thought or pattern of words that would be recognisable particularly to the researcher.

Concept extraction

letting your concepts emerge from your data, rather than from your literature review through identifying the key issues, ideas, or other meaning units in your data.

Concrete experience

personal, such as a series of feelings or memories, or research-based, such as transcripts of interviews, evidence.

Content analysis

using a structured or unstructured process to identify themes in texts or other materials

Conversation analysis

a research method for analysing the structure of conversations.

Credible

you present evidence to support any contentions made.

Data archive

a repository for survey data.

Data set

a set of information collected by academic or professional researchers about one or more social units using a consistent research design, or research protocol.

Database

a structured data set, usually a matrix of data that allocates a row allocated to each social unit (e.g., organisation, household, or person) that you are studying, and a column to each variable or other measure related to that social unit.

Data matrix

a table containing data, for example, one that uses rows to represent your cases (each separate organisation, household, individual, or other social unit) and columns to represent each variable or characteristic of the case that you have recorded.

Demand characteristics

experimental bias or error resulting from characteristics or behaviours of the experiment's participants.

Dependent variable

a factor that you propose is influenced by another factor (effect or outcome).

Desk research

a research project based on indirectly collected data.

Dependencies

relationships between activities where one activity has to be completed before the other can begin.

Detailed actions

the specific activities involved in completing a mini-project.

Dimensions

the range of values a category can take on.

Discourse analysis

a research method for interpreting language in its social and historical context.

Database

structured information in print or electronic form.

Data protection act

a legal act that restricts what data you can collect about people, and enstrongs the people named in any electronic database to find out what information you are keeping on file about them and to get a copy of the information

Duty of care

your responsibility for avoiding provocative statements that could be taken out of context and used against the organisation or individuals that you have been working with.

Deduction

the logic of the task undertaken by the scientist.

Dependability

the repeatability of the process of inducing theory from data (rather than the repeatability of the findings themselves).

Descriptive data

background or general information.

Discussion

What your findings say about the more general research problem that you were investigating, what your findings mean within the broader context of the research project, including the theoretical literature and/or frameworks that were presented in the literature review.

Displacement activities

the activities that we engage in whilst putting off working on your project report that we fool ourselves into thinking that they are worthwhile or even necessary.

Double marking

the process by which more than one person marks your script, independently.

Ethnographic study

an investigation of the culture of a particular organisation or group and trying to find make sense of the particular situation.

Ethics

the moral principles that determine how we think and act in particular situations.

Embedded-case study

multiple case studies conducted within a single setting, such as the study of multiple divisions within a single company, or the study of multiple project teams within new product development.

Enfolding the literature

turning to the literature to find vital points of reference and comparison.

Evaluative data

people making judgemental statements about an issue or individual.

Epistemology

what is and isn't considered as acceptable knowledge in a field.

Expectanct

letting your expectations about the outcomes of the experiment influence your design of the experiment to increase the likelihood that that outcome actually occurs.

Experiment

a structured process for testing how varying one or more inputs affects one or more outcomes.

Experimental hypothesis

what you predicted would happen before you conducted the experiment.

Experimental treatment

the input or condition you are trying to vary in an experiment.

Experimenter effects

intentional or unintentional mistakes in how you collect, record, interpret, or report your data and findings; or interactions between you and the experimental treatment, participants, and or setting.

Executive summary

a brief (about one page or 250 words) summary of the practical problem, your analysis of the practical problem, the alternative solutions, your recommendations, and any implementation issues.

External examiner

someone from outside your institution who marks your research project.

Familiarisation

becoming intimately familiar with your data.

Field experiment

an experiment that takes place in the natural setting of the social units being studied.

Found data

data that result from the identification of physical traces, such as physical changes in the environment due to erosion or accretion.

Focal organization

the organization that you are studying

Forward scheduling

seeing how long it will take to complete all subsequent activities starting from a given date

Findings

what you found out about the problem and what it means.

Field research

research that involves direct contact with people or organisations; the opposite of library or desk research.

First draft

your first complete version of all of your report.

Focus-down strategy

starting with a broad overview of the topic and progressively narrows it down.

Frequency count

a total for each individual response to a question.

Front matter

additional material before the main text that helps your reader navigate through your project report; it is essential for long or complex projects and optional for short and simple projects.

Gantt chart

a very simple type of chart where time runs from left to right on the horizontal axis and where activities are represented by horizontal bars whose lengths are proportional to the amount of time involved, and milestones are indicated by diamonds (lozenges).

Generalisable

avoid over- or understating the wider applicability of your findings.

Grounded theory

a research method for generating theory directly from data.

Goals

high-level objectives that help guide your decisions before and during the project.

Good subject effect

participants change their behaviours to help (or hinder) the experimenter, thus making the experimental results invalid because they do not represent how people usually behave.

Golden rules for doing field research

a set of guidelines for getting the most out of your work and avoiding the most obvious sorts of trouble.

Graph

a figure that that presents relationships among one or more sets of independent and dependent variables, especially where data follow a linear or other recognisable pattern.

Grounded case study

a procedure for capturing the evolving insights and determining your evolving research design using an approach where data collection and data analysis overlap.

Grounded theory

an approach to qualitative research.

Glossary

a list of key terms and definitions, such as the present document.

Grammar

rules for the structuring of words into sentences.

Hermeneutics

a research method for interpreting texts, originally sacred texts such as the Bible, but today applied to both documents and social actions.

Hierarchy of concepts

a progressive focus or breaking down of your topic from general to specific.

Histogram

a simple graph of the frequency of different responses to a question.

Incommensurate

incompatible.

Induction

the logic of the task undertaken by the ethnographer.

Interpretivism

the view that people cannot understand the world directly.

Independent variable

a factor that you propose influences another factor (cause or input).

Informed consent

giving your participants information about the experiment before they agree to participate, before you begin the experimental treatment, and after the experiment.

Interview schedule

a 'script', or list of questions to be used in a structured interview.

Interviews

a research method where the researcher collects information by asking questions of one or more respondents.

finding out things by asking questions.

Introduction

an overview of your entire project report that tells your reader what you did in your project, why it was important, and what you found out.

Indirect data collection

collecting data when you can't be present for various reasons, where you have little or no direct contact with the organisation or people that you are studying, and have only their words and other records to speak for them.

Indirect observation

collecting data through physical clues to people's behaviour, where you collect data directly through watching someone doing something, but still have little or no direct interaction with them.

Influence diagram

a diagram that not only shows the concepts and whether there are relationships between them, it also shows the proposed cause-and-effect relationships.

Internal examiner

someone from your institution who marks your research project.

Interval

the number assigned to an answer is based on the interval (or distance) between numbers being constant and corresponding to the numerical difference between successive answers.

Journalism

gathering and reporting information about business and management organisations, people, and trends, in newspapers such as the Financial Times and the Wall Street Journal and magazines such as the Economist and Fortune.

Kolb's learning cycle

a model for understanding how to analyse qualitative data.

Knowledge claim

the theoretical problem that you want to find out more about.

Kurtosis

data are more tightly clustered around the mean than for a normal distribution, or has data more spread out than for a normal distribution (negative Kurtosis).

Learning process

the loop that is closed by reflecting on what you have learnt and what you have not yet learnt.

Literature

the record of other people's research; a specific body of knowledge.

Literature review

a critical analysis of research on your research topic that describes what other people have found out about this problem and what is not yet known.

finding out more about your research topic, in particular your theoretical problem.

Logic diagrams

a diagram that shows the logic or preconditions for an event or set of circumstances to occur and provides either the ability to structure the logic of the current situation, or to indicate the necessary conditions for that situation to arise.

Literature search

a critical analysis of the business and management research on your topic that positions your research it its theoretical context; shows that you understand the current state of the research topic; and supports any conceptual framework (theories, models, concepts, hypotheses) that you plan to investigate.

Logic of research

what research questions you can ask and what methods you can use to answer them.

Laboratory experiment

an experiment conducted in an artificial setting, not the natural setting where participants would normally be found.

Library research

a research project based on indirectly collected data.

Milestone

an important deadline or completing a substantial project output such as a project proposal that marks the completion of a mini-project.

Mini-projects

a subproject that can be managed as a discrete part of the overall project.

Mitigation

taking action to avoid or reduce the effects of risk.

Mode i research

research directed towards theoretical problems.

Mode ii research

research directed towards practical problems.

Main text

everything between the first word of your introduction and the last word of your conclusions.

Master editor

a person who is responsible for editing material written by different project members and making sure they are consistent in style and content.

Magazines

weekly, monthly, or quarterly publications of general interest.

Managerial journals

periodicals, typically not peer-reviewed, which are written for managers rather than academics.

Market research report

a proprietary research report on an industry, company, or product.

Mean

the arithmetic average (the sum of values divided by the number of observations) of the values in a data set.

Measures of central tendency

a statistic that describes the central point of a measure, for instance the arithmetic average.

Measures of dispersion

a statistic that describes how widely your data are spread around this central point, such as the range or the standard deviation.

Metasearch engines

a search engine that searches other search engines for information.

Moderating

marking done by one examiner checking and verifying the first examiner's mark.

Monograph

a specialist book written on a single subject by a single author or a single set of authors

Multiple-case study

a case study that focuses on several units of analysis.

Narrative analysis

a research methods for interpreting the stories told by individuals by focusing on the patterns that people find in their lives over time.

Network diagram

a very simple type of chart that shows what activities you will undertake and their sequence and interdependencies.

Natural settings

the settings in which people or organisations are usually found.

Neutrality

developing strategies to avoid unrecognised subjectivity that might bias research findings.

Newspapers

daily or weekly publications of general interest.

Non-probability sampling

not drawing the units that you study randomly from your population, e.g., through convenience sampling.

Non-response bias

sample error that occurs if you cannot contact all of the social units that you have selected or if some of these refuse to participate.

Nonparticipant observation

collecting data directly through watching someone doing something, but with little or no direct interaction with them.

Note taking

noting down any issues that might be worth returning to during the interview, should any topics need probing or the conversation need more direction.

Nominal

the number assigned to an answer is arbitrary, rather than representing an essential aspect of that variable, for example 1 for male and 0 for female.

Non-parametric tests

statistical tests that do not rely on a normal distribution of the data.

Normal distribution

a regular pattern where data are clustered around a point halfway between the maximum and the minimum, and symmetrically distributed around that point; sometimes called the bell curve, because its shape is roughly that of a church bell.

Open-stack library

a library whose holdings are accessible to its users.

Objectivism

the view that people can understand the world directly.

Open-ended question

a question whose answers cannot or have not been specified in advance.

Oral presentation

a verbal presentation of the key points of your project report.

Opportunity

a chance to improve the project outcome or completion that you cannot identify a priority.

Open coding

a systematic process for identifying concepts starting with codes that emerge when the researcher highlights the key ideas.

Ordinal

the number assigned to an answer represents more or less of some quality that can be placed in some order, rather than being completely arbitrary.

Personal objectives

include any objectives that you want to achieve from the research project, such as supporting your career development, personal interests, or job prospects.

Project

a one-off activity carried out with limited resources (particularly time and cost) to meet a given objective.

Project breakdown structure

a breakdown of a project into phases that identifies the tasks that need to be undertaken during each phase.

Project life-cycle

a generic project structure that can be applied at a high level to the main stages of a research project, including project definition, project design, project execution, and project p.

Project management

a systematic approach to managing projects, including a well-developed body of knowledge and a large set of tools.

Project objectives

the research objectives that you want to achieve from your research project and any personal objectives. They should be SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-framed.

Project planning

a detailed plan of how you will actually execute each mini-project and its goals and objectives.

Project structure

the detailed set of activities involved in a project.

Practical problem

a problem that the organisation needs to solve

Project paralysis

a state of uncertainty about how to go on with the research process because of the number of possibilities.

Project scope

a statement of your research topic, your research questions, and the main perspective that identifies what is in and what is out.

Patterns

regularities in phenomena, which ethnographers try to identify.

Parametric tests

statistical tests that assume your data have a certain distribution such as the normal distribution.

Philosophy of science

a p of the beliefs, values, and logic associated with the natural sciences, which is applied to some areas within business and management.

Philosophy of social science

a p of the beliefs, values, and logic associated with the social sciences, which is applied to some areas within business and management.

Positivism

an epistemological position which is derived from the philosophy of science and is consistent with the view of the scientist.

Peer review

the process used to make sure that published research meets quality standards by subjecting it to scrutiny by other academics working in the same academic area before publication.

Periodicals

publications that appear regularly -- daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly or irregularly, including newspapers, magazines, and academic journals.

Plagiarism

a form of theft in which you do not give appropriate credit to other people for their ideas.

Population

The entire set of social units that you want to study; the set that contains all members of the social units that you want to study.

Postal questionnaire

a questionnaire that is sent to a respondent by post and the respondent returns the completed questionnaire the same way.

Primary data

data that you have collected yourself specifically for your project.

Probability sampling

drawing the units that you study randomly from your population.

Prompts

additional statements or questions to be used in an interview.

Proprietary database

a data set or database created as a product to be sold.

Participant observation

personal involvement with the subject of your investigation, with the objective of deriving knowledge from a total experience of the situation.

Participatory action research

a type of participant observation where you are trying to change the organisation in some way through your involvement as a researcher, not just analyse and report the situation

Plagiarism

avoid by crediting the source of any ideas or words that you have taken directly or indirectly from someone else, and listing all of the relevant sources in your reference list or bibliography.

Procrastination

the art of putting off to tomorrow what we really should be doing today.

Personal network

your circle of friends or contacts.

Project creep

a change in project scope that starts as a seemingly small request or series of requests to change a small part of the project and ends up being a major or complete change.

Phenomenon

the behaviour you are actually studying.

Properties

aspects or attributes of a category.

Project scope

a statement of what is included in the project and what is excluded.

Quasi-experiments

an experiment where one or more aspects of a true experiment is lacking, but the general design is experimental.

Questionnaire

a survey where respondents are asked to record their answers to a series of questions on paper or electronic forms.

Qualitative interviewing

conducting unstructured or semistructured interviews.

Remote data collection

collecting data without any contact with the social units you are studying.

Research diary

a record kept by a researcher during the research project.

Reference book

dictionaries, encyclopaedias, yearbooks, writing guides, thesauruses, and statistical abstracts.

ReferenceS

sources that you have used in your research.

Research setting

the real-world context in which you will investigate your research problem.

Reliability

you or another researcher would get the same findings if you repeated your study.

Research approach

the pattern of decisions associated with a research project.

Research design

the general approach that you will take to answering your research questions, as well as the specific techniques that you will use to gather, analyse, and interpret data.

Research methodology

how you will translate your research perspective into a way of studying the world.

Research method

the techniques that you will use to collect and analyse data in a particular research design, comprising specific techniques and tools, the physical or electronic artefacts associated with particular methods, e.g., a web survey or a questionnaire or an interview schedule

Research perspective

a 'theory' of research in a particular field which explains the assumptions concerning the nature of reality and how we can know reality that underlie the research approach.

Random assignment

assigning the experimental participants to experimental and control groups in a random way to ensure that differences in your experimental outcomes (dependent variables) aren't due to pre-existing or systemic differences between the people in your groups.

Repeated surveys

a survey in which data are collected continuously or at regular intervals.

Research

a systematic process that includes defining, designing, doing, and describing an investigation into a research problem.

Research objectives

what you want to achieve from the research project, such as satisfying your project requirements (coursework degree work assignment).

Research idea

an interest or a general area of inquiry that you want to pursue.

Research proposal

a formal statement of your research topic, research problem and research questions.

Research questions

questions about your research topic, which define what areas of that topic you will investigate and guide what you do in your project.

Research setting

where you will conduct your project.

Research topic

a general area of business and management that you can investigate, which will lead to either a practical problem or theoretical problem that you can address in your research, and which can be expressed as a statement of the general area that you plan to research.

Risk

the probability that an activity fails or takes more or less time than you have estimated.

Risk element

a risk associated with a project activity.

Research problem

either a practical problem (real-life situation) based on an issue that you have observed in a real-life setting or a theoretical problem (general principles or observations) posed by a business or management topic about which you would like to know more but for which we have incomplete information.

Research process

a specific set and sequence of activities, which has tangible and intangible inputs and outputs, such as information, time, resources, and knowledge, and results in something (such as knowledge about the world, and actions that are taken based on that knowledge) being transformed.

Research question

a question that you ask about your research problem in order to understand more about it

Random number generator

an apocryphal method for assessing a large amount of project reports.

Ratio

the number assigned to an answer take account of its distance from a zero point.

Raw data

data in their original form, before you process them.

Research career

what a student who enjoys the research process may go on to do.

Reader

your ideal or actual audience for your project report.

Research methods

a p of your research design and your sources of data, including references for your specific research techniques.

Reflective observation

the second stage of Kolb's learning cycle.

Reliable

your transcripts or other records are a faithful record of your discussions or observations; your main points and conclusions are robust rather than fragile.

Re-ordering

summarising the data to reflect the patterns that you see in the data.

Rough draft

a first set of written versions of your core chapters.

Sample

the real-world sites in which you will gather your evidence.

Sample bias

inaccurate results that result from problems with sampling.

Subject librarian

a librarian who specialises in business and management studies, or a more general specialist in social sciences who takes responsibility for business and management studies.

Syntax

how you should enter your search terms and how you can combine these search terms to increase the relevance of your results

Scientific method

an approach to designing and doing research based on the natural sciences and the philosophy of science.

Subjectivism

an epistemological position derived from the philosophy of social science, and consistent with the view of the ethnographer.

Sample

a subset the population that you want to study.

Safety margin

the amount of buffer built into a project or mini-project.

Sampling error

the difference between the sample that you select and the population that you take it from.

Sampling frame

a list of all the units in the population.

Secondary analysis

a research design based around collecting (or acquiring) and analysing secondary data, data that you do not directly collect from organisations or people in their natural settings.

Secondary data

data that other people have collected for their own research projects or for commercial purposes.

Single informant

relying on just one person as the source of data about an organisation, workgroup, household, or other group of individuals.

Single-case study

a case study that focuses on a single unit of analysis, such as a corporation.

Semiotics

a research method for interpreting the meaning behind signs and symbols, to show how messages are communicated as systems of cultural meaning.

Structured approach

comparing your findings to a conceptual framework that you have developed or found in the literature or analysing your qualitative data through the lens of a conceptual framework that you have already selected before collecting the data.

Self-administered

a survey where the respondent reads the questions and records the answer without the assistance of the researcher.

Skew

data are not symmetrically distributed around the central point.

Socially desirable

behaviours or attitudes that respondents perceive as positive.

Spam

sending unsolicited mass emails.

Structured content analysis

a method for finding and counting the how often concepts, ideas, or other 'meaning units' occur within a document or other texts.

Structured questionnaire

a survey which is conducted face-to-face, over the telephone, or electronically, based on a standard set of questions (which may be called an instrument or a schedule).

Survey

a methods for collecting data from a range of respondents by asking them questions.

Survey data

data that other people have collected for their own research projects or for government or commercial purposes using a survey methods such as postal questionnaires.

Stakeholders

the people who have the information that you need, the people that you will report your findings to or make your recommendations to, and the people who will be affected by what you find out.

Stairs method

an apocryphal method for assessing a large amount of project reports.

Strategic learner

someone who spends some time even before choosing their research topic understanding how it will be assessed to maximize their return to effort.

Strong page

the front page of your project report, usually in a specified format.

Systematic

identifying the choices you make about what to research and how to research it, and the logic that guides these choices.

Socially desirable responding

data are affected by social pressures for people to give the 'right answers to researchers.

Scope statement

a document of what is included in the project and what is excluded.

Sensitive personal data

data that are included under the Data Protection Act or otherwise need careful handling, such as someone's political opinions, religious beliefs, or organisational memberships.

Table of contents

a list of the major elements of the report and their page numbers.

Theoretical or purposive sampling

instead of choosing people to interview based on how well they represent the group you are studying, you will select them to create the maximum variety in their responses.

Transcribe

to record your interviews or observations word for word, particularly from a tape or electronic recording.

Transcription

a written record of an interview or observation.

Textbooks

books written specifically to support teaching, a good source of standard information, such as this book.

Thesis

a formal report on research projects submitted by a student to fulfil a degree requirement (see also thesis).

Team dynamics

the variation in the research process created by people working together (rather than together), including both synergy and conflict.

Time traps

seemingly worthwhile project-related activities that do not contribute to project completion or success (see also blind alleys).

Thick p

a research p that incorporates how it felt for you to be doing research as well as what you observed

Transparency

acknowledging subjectivity.

Trade association

a source of information about a commodity or organization.

Triangulation

studying the same phenomenon from several perspectives, for example using more than one method or more than one source of data.

True experiments

an experiment where all of the principles of experimental design experimental treatment, random assignment, control groups, before-and-after measurement are met.

Theoretical saturation

in analysing your data when you are no longer getting any new insights from coding your data or reviewing your concepts or categories so it is when you can stop collecting data, and when your analysis is complete.

Traceable

you can demonstrate where a particular piece of data came from.

Unobtrusive measures

data gathered indirectly from research subjects by observing the traces that they leave in the physical environment or other natural settings.

Unstandardised data

answers to questions from all possible answers.

Univariate tests

tests of a single variable at a time.

Uncertainty

events that you are unaware of and cannot estimate.

Unstructured approach

letting meanings and themes emerge from your data, rather than imposing them on the data.

Valid

the extent to which you have captured the reality of the situation, and not been misled by particular influences, such as key individuals.

Virtual library

an electronic library.

Vancouver system

a citation and reference system infrequently used in business and management research.

Viva voce examination

an oral examination in which you are tested on your project report.

Validity

how accurately you have conducted your research.

Verification

the process within the scientific method of going from data back to hypotheses to theory.

Volunteer effect

people who volunteer to participate in studies are different from the general population, and again the experimental results may not represent how people in general (rather than experimental subjects) usually behave.

Warm contact

someone with whom you already have a connection, such as a family member, acquaintance, sporting teammate, or professional associations.

Within-case analysis

a process by which you focus your analysis only on an individual case, without trying to bring in the findings or lessons from any other cases that you might have been investigating.

Work package

a set of activities that lm a citation and reference system infrequently used in business and management research.