Palgrave Modern Linguistics

by Palgrave Macmillan

Communication Disorders

By Louise Cummings

The website is a vitally important resource for student readers and for practitioners wishing to develop their knowledge. It contains 200 multiple choice questions and answers which examine every disorder discussed in the book. There is also an extensive array of audio and visual material on the website that covers everything from the speech of people who clutter to the numerous organic pathologies that cause voice disorders.

Throughout the text you will find boxes indicating that there is complementary material available on the website. All material is organized by chapter to make it easy to navigate. We hope you find the materials on this website interesting and useful.

Click on the following links to go straight to their related resources:

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Images of carcinoma of the tongue

Four images of carcinoma of the tongue (Reproduced with kind permission of Bechara Y. Ghorayeb, MD; www.houstonoto.com/PicturesLarynx.html)
Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in a 32-year-old chronic smoker
Tongue Cancer 1 Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in a 32-year-old chronic smoker
Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue
Tongue cancer 2 Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue
Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in a chronic smoker
Tongue cancer 3 Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in a chronic smoker
Squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue
Tongue cancer 4 Squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue

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Chapter 5

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Chapter 6

Selective mutism (reproduced with kind permission of RDF Television and Channel 4)


​Pre- and post-surgical voices of speakers who have undergone cricothyroid approximation (reproduced with kind permission of James P. Thomas, MD, www.voicedoctor.net).Audio


These audio files can be accessed from:
http://voicedoctor.net/surgery/audio-examples?f[0]=field_type_audio:141

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Chapter 7

Images of vocal nodules and polyps

Images reproduced with kind permission of The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary Voice and Swallowing Institute (www.nyee.edu/vsi):
Nodules
Nodules The nodules prevent the vocal folds from closing completely during phonation.
Sometimes nodules can become firm, as these are that protrude from the mid-portion of each vocal fold.
Nodules Sometimes nodules can become firm, as these are that protrude from the mid-portion of each vocal fold.
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Nodules Often, nodules in the early stages of formation are soft, as these are that protrude from the mid-portion of each vocal fold.
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Polyp The vocal fold on the left side of the picture has a firm-appearing polyp, which has caused irritation of the mucosa on the opposite vocal fold.
The polyp that protrudes from the vocal fold on the left has a blood supply, making it appear red.
Polyp The polyp that protrudes from the vocal fold on the left has a blood supply, making it appear red.
The polyp prevents the vocal folds from closing during phonation.
Polyp The polyp prevents the vocal folds from closing during phonation.

The remaining images in this section are reproduced with kind permission of Bechara Y. Ghorayeb, MD (www.houstonoto.com/PicturesLarynx.html):

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Bilateral vocal cord nodules Picture of bilateral vocal cord nodules (also known as teacher’s, singer’s, or preacher’s nodules). As these names imply, vocal nodules are caused by voice abuse and produce a hoarse breathy voice. These lesions are benign. They are bilateral and face each other. They grow at the junction of the anterior and middle thirds of the vocal cords. Occasionally, a small capillary ruptures inside the nodule and makes it look red (haemorrhagic nodule).
Bilateral sessile laryngeal polyps
Laryngeal Polyp 1 Bilateral sessile laryngeal polyps
Anterior left vocal cord polyp
Laryngeal Polyp 2 Anterior left vocal cord polyp
Chronic laryngitis and right vocal cord polyp
Laryngeal Polyp 3 Chronic laryngitis and right vocal cord polyp
This benign looking laryngeal polyp of the posterior commissure turned out to be a rhabdomyosarcoma
Laryngeal Polyp 4 This benign looking laryngeal polyp of the posterior commissure turned out to be a rhabdomyosarcoma

Images of vocal cysts

These images are reproduced with kind permission of The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary Voice and Swallowing Institute (www.nyee.edu/vsi):

The vocal fold on the right side of the picture has a firm cyst.
Cyst The vocal fold on the right side of the picture has a firm cyst.
The vocal fold on the left side of the picture has a cyst, causing the mucosal cover to bulge outward.
Image 8: Cyst The vocal fold on the left side of the picture has a cyst, causing the mucosal cover to bulge outward.
The vocal fold on the left side of the picture has a large cyst which has caused irritation of the mucosa on the opposite vocal fold.
Cyst The vocal fold on the left side of the picture has a large cyst which has caused irritation of the mucosa on the opposite vocal fold.
The vocal fold on the left side of the picture has a clearly-defined cyst which causes the vocal fold to bulge outwardly, impairing phonatory glottal closure and mucosal wave vibration.
Image 10: Cyst The vocal fold on the left side of the picture has a clearly-defined cyst which causes the vocal fold to bulge outwardly, impairing phonatory glottal closure and mucosal wave vibration.
Vocal fold cyst
Vocal fold cyst

This image is reproduced with kind permission of Bechara Y. Ghorayeb, MD (www.houstonoto.com/PicturesLarynx.html).

Images of Reinke’s oedema and granuloma

These images are reproduced with kind permission of The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary Voice and Swallowing Institute (www.nyee.edu/vsi):
The vocal fold on the right side of the picture has a granuloma attached to the vocal process (top of picture)
Granuloma The vocal fold on the right side of the picture has a granuloma attached to the vocal process (top of picture)
The posterior vocal process on the left side of this picture has a large granuloma, which causes painful phonation and swallowing for this patient.
Granuloma The posterior vocal process on the left side of this picture has a large granuloma, which causes painful phonation and swallowing for this patient.
The granuloma seen on the left side of this photo is causing a small reactive lesion on the opposite vocal process.
Granuloma The granuloma seen on the left side of this photo is causing a small reactive lesion on the opposite vocal process.
The swelling of the vocal fold mucosa is caused by smoking.
Reinke’s oedema The swelling of the vocal fold mucosa is caused by smoking.
Picture of intubation granuloma of the larynx.
Intubation Granuloma Picture of intubation granuloma of the larynx.

Image reproduced with kind permission of Bechara Y. Ghorayeb, MD
(www.houstonoto.com/PicturesLarynx.html).

Images of laryngeal papillomas

Images reproduced with kind permission of Bechara Y. Ghorayeb, MD
(www.houstonoto.com/PicturesLarynx.html):
Bilateral vocal cord papillomas
Laryngeal Papilloma 1 Bilateral vocal cord papillomas
Right glottic and supraglottic papillomas
Laryngeal Papilloma 2 Right glottic and supraglottic papillomas
Left vocal cord papillomas, involving the anterior commissure
Laryngeal Papilloma 3 Left vocal cord papillomas, involving the anterior commissure
Laryngeal Papillomatosis
Laryngeal Papilloma 4 Laryngeal Papillomatosis
Solitary papilloma of the left false vocal cord
Laryngeal Papilloma 5 Solitary papilloma of the left false vocal cord

Image of vocal fold haemorrhage

This image is reproduced with kind permission of Bechara Y. Ghorayeb, MD (www.houstonoto.com/PicturesLarynx.html):
This diffuse, submucosal bleeding involves the whole surface of the right vocal cord.  In this patient, the haemorrhage was caused by traumatic endotracheal intubation. Submucosal haemorrhage of the vocal cord is different from a haemorrhagic vocal cord nodule, in which the bleeding is caused by a ruptured capillary and is limited to the nodule. Submucosal haemorrhage of the vocal cord is usually caused by an episode of voice abuse (screaming).  In general, it affects one cord, but could be bilateral.  Patients who are taking anticoagulants have a greater tendency to bleed submucosally if they overuse their voice or cough. Clinically, this condition is manifested by hoarseness and vocal fatigue.
Submucosal haemorrhage of the vocal cord
This diffuse, submucosal bleeding involves the whole surface of the right vocal cord. In this patient, the haemorrhage was caused by traumatic endotracheal intubation.

Submucosal haemorrhage of the vocal cord is different from a haemorrhagic vocal cord nodule, in which the bleeding is caused by a ruptured capillary and is limited to the nodule.

Submucosal haemorrhage of the vocal cord is usually caused by an episode of voice abuse (screaming). In general, it affects one cord, but could be bilateral. Patients who are taking anticoagulants have a greater tendency to bleed submucosally if they overuse their voice or cough. Clinically, this condition is manifested by hoarseness and vocal fatigue.

Images of sulcus vocalis

These images are reproduced with kind permission of The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary Voice and Swallowing Institute (www.nyee.edu/vsi):

The sulcus on each vocal fold causes the mucosal cover to adhere to the deeper layers of tissue, resulting in poor mucosal wave vibration and incomplete glottal closure.
Sulcus The sulcus on each vocal fold causes the mucosal cover to adhere to the deeper layers of tissue, resulting in poor mucosal wave vibration and incomplete glottal closure.
The sulcus on each vocal fold can be seen as a ridge running the length of the folds.
Sulcus The sulcus on each vocal fold can be seen as a ridge running the length of the folds.

Audio file of presbylarynx

This audio file is linked with kind permission of Richard Stasney, MD of the Texas Voice Center (www.texasvoicecenter.com). It can be accessed at: www.texasvoicecenter.com/diseases.html (presbylaryngis)

Audio files of vocal fold paralysis and paresis

These audio files are linked with kind permission of Richard Stasney, MD of the Texas Voice Center (www.texasvoicecenter.com). They can be accessed at: www.texasvoicecenter.com/diseases.html (unilateral vocal fold paralysis and bilateral vocal fold paralysis)

Audio files of spasmodic dysphonia

These audio files are linked with kind permission of Richard Stasney, MD of the Texas Voice Center (www.texasvoicecenter.com). They can be accessed at: www.texasvoicecenter.com/diseases.html (adductor spasmodic dysphonia and abductor spasmodic dysphonia)

These audio files are linked with kind permission of the National Spasmodic Dysphonia Association (www.dysphonia.org). They can be accessed at: www.dysphonia.org (adductor spasmodic dysphonia and abductor spasmodic dysphonia)

Image of laryngopharyngeal reflux

This image is reproduced with kind permission of The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary Voice and Swallowing Institute (www.nyee.edu/vsi):

Laryngopharyngeal reflux has caused inflammation (redness and swelling) of the back of the larynx. The vocal fold mucosa is irritated and copious thick secretions cover the vocal folds. This causes discomfort and irregular mucosal wave vibration, leading to voice changes.
Laryngopharyngeal reflux
Laryngopharyngeal reflux has caused inflammation (redness and swelling) of the back of the larynx. The vocal fold mucosa is irritated and copious thick secretions cover the vocal folds. This causes discomfort and irregular mucosal wave vibration, leading to voice changes.

Image of muscle tension dysphonia

This image is reproduced with kind permission of The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary Voice and Swallowing Institute (www.nyee.edu/vsi):
The vocal tract above the true vocal folds is constricted, making it difficult to produce voice.
Muscle tension dysphonia The vocal tract above the true vocal folds is constricted, making it difficult to produce voice.

Video file of laryngoscopy examination

This video file is linked with kind permission of James P. Thomas, MD (www.voicedoctor.net). It can be accessed at: www.voicedoctor.net/videos/laryngoscopy-art-seeing-voice-vocal-cords (Laryngoscopy: the art of seeing the voice or vocal cords)

Lecture on cricothyroid approximation

This video file is linked with kind permissionof James P. Thomas, MD (www.voicedoctor.net). It can be accessed at: voicedoctor.net/videos/feminization-laryngoplasty-2005-bologna-italy (A 15-minute video lecture on CTA & feminization laryngoplasty)

Images of laryngeal cancer

The images below are reproduced with kind permission of Bechara Y. Ghorayeb, MD (www.houstonoto.com/PicturesLarynx.html):

Placeholder Image
Laryngeal Carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx
Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx
Laryngeal Carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx
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Laryngeal Carcinoma Squamous Cell carcinoma
Picture of supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx
Laryngeal Carcinoma Picture of supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx
Picture of glottic squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.  The tumor involves the anterior half of the left vocal cord
Laryngeal Carcinoma Picture of glottic squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. The tumor involves the anterior half of the left vocal cord
Picture of an extensive squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.  The tumor involves the subglottic region, the glottis and the supraglottic area. This patient underwent a tracheotomy prior to laryngoscopy.
Laryngeal Carcinoma Picture of an extensive squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. The tumor involves the subglottic region, the glottis and the supraglottic area. This patient underwent a tracheotomy prior to laryngoscopy.

Video files of laryngectomy speakers

Laryngectomy 1

Laryngectomy 2

Videos reproduced with kind permission of The National Association of Laryngectomee Clubs (www.laryngectomy.org.uk).

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Chapter 8

Stuttering and Your Child: Help for Parents (reproduced with the kind permission of The Stuttering Foundation - www.stutteringhelp.org)


Help me to Speak – Stammering (reproduced with kind permission of RDF Television and Channel 4)


Let Me Finish: A Stuttering Documentary by Alex R. Murphy

Click here to go to the National Stammering Association website.

Video file of cluttered speech

Video of cluttered speech hosted on the website of the International Cluttering Association http://associations.missouristate.edu/ICA/ To view the video click on ‘What is Cluttering?’ in theassociations.missouristate.edu/ICA/ website.

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