The Government and Politics of the European Union

Seventh edition

by Neill Nugent


Population 10.0 m
Capital Budapest
Surface area 93,000 km2
Official Language Magyar (Hungarian)
Gross domestic product (GDP) (in euros) 145.7 bn
GDP as a % of EU-27, based on 2009 data 1.2
GDP per capita by purchasing power standards (indexed to EU average of 100) 62.8
Currency Forint (HUF)
Human development index (HDI), an index based on life expectancy, education and GDP (max. 1) 0.874
World rank in HDI 0.874
Key economic sectors Services (64.5); industry (31.2); agriculture (4.3)
Leading Companies MOL (oil and gas plc.); OTP Bank
Unemployment in January 2010 11.1% (source:
Main religious denominations Roman Catholic (5.3); Calvinist (1.6); Lutheran (0.3)
Political system A single-chamber National Assembly, elected for a four-year term, elects the President for a five-year term.
Electoral system Of the 836 members of the National Assembly, 176 are elected by a simple majority system, 152 by proportional representation from county party lists, and the remaining 58 by proportional representation from a national list.
Current (March 2010) leaders President: László Sólymon (b. 1968), since August 2005
Prime minister: Gordon Bajnai (b. 1942), since April 2009
Previous leaders: Presidents: Ferenc Mádl (2000-05); Árpad Göncz (1990-2000)
Prime ministers: Ferenc Gyurcsány (2004-09); Péter Medgyessy (2002-04); Viktor Orbán (1998-2002)
Joined the EU/EC 2004
Commissioner from country in Barroso II College of Commissioners, and portfolio Maria Damanaki (Maritime Affairs and Fisheries)
Number of MEPs 22/754
Turnout in 2009 EP elections (%) 36.2
Member of eurozone No

Except where a specific reference is inserted, the sources for this profile are either Neill Nugent’s book itself, or Barry Turner (ed.), The Statesman’s Yearbook Online, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. If your library subscribes, you can gain access at