The Government and Politics of the European Union

Seventh edition

by Neill Nugent


Population 9.2 m
Capital Stockholm
Surface area 410,300 km2
Official Languages None (Swedish de facto)
Gross domestic product (GDP) (in euros) 262.1 bn
GDP as a % of EU-27, based on 2009 data 2.4
GDP per capita by purchasing power standards (indexed to EU average of 100) 121.0
Currency Krona (SEK)
Human development index (HDI), an index based on life expectancy, education and GDP (max. 1) 0.956
World rank in HDI 6/177
Key economic sectors (% of GDP in 2002) Services (70.0); industry (28.2); agriculture (1.8)
Leading companies Hennes and Mauritz (clothing company); Nordea Bank AB; TeliaSonera (mobile telephone company)
Unemployment in February 2010 9.0% (source:
Main religious denominations (numbers in millions) Church of Sweden (7.7); Muslim (0.25)
Significant minority ethnic groups Sami (Lapps)
Political system Constitutional monarchy.
A single-chamber Riksdag is elected every four years.
Electoral system Proportional representation, with all parties receiving at least 4% of the vote guaranteed absolute proportionality. Any party not receiving 4% of the vote nationally but 12% within a constituency is also guaranteed representation.
Current (March 2010) leaders Prime minister: John Frederik Reinfeldt (b. 1965), since October 2006
Previous leaders: Prime ministers: Göran Persson (1996-2006); Ingvar Gösta Carlsson (1994-96); Carl Bildt (1991-94)
Joined the EU/EC 1995
Commissioner from country in Barroso II College of Commissioners, and portfolio Cecilia Malmström (Home Affairs)
Number of MEPs 20/754
Turnout in 2009 EP elections (%) 45.5
Member of eurozone No

Except where a specific reference is inserted, the sources for this profile are either Neill Nugent’s book itself, or Barry Turner (ed.), The Statesman’s Yearbook Online, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. If your library subscribes, you can gain access at