Global Political Economy

Evolution and dynamics, sixth edition

by Robert O'Brien and Marc Williams

Timelines of key dates in global political economy

Pre 1945

1497 Portuguese fleet pass Cape of Good Hope, southern Africa on route to India
1519–21 Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire (Mexico)
1500 Transatlantic slave trade begins
1603 Dutch East India Company (VOC) establishes a base in Indonesia
1652 Dutch establish a base at the Cape, South Africa
1700–1800 Height of the Atlantic Slave trade
1757 British East India Company takes over Bengal, India
1760–1840 Industrial Revolution in Britain
1858 British Government takes control of India from British East India Company
1881–1941 Scramble for Africa
1839–42 First Opium War
1856–1860 Second Opium War
1868 Meiji Restoration and Japanese industrial revolution
1860–71 Height of the international gold standard
1905 Japanese victory over Russia
1914–18 First World War
1917 Russian Revolution
1929 US stock market crash
1929–39 Great Depression
1939–45 Second World War

Post 1945

1944 Bretton Woods Conference (IMF and IBRD founded)
1948 Indian independence
1948 Chinese revolution
1948 First GATT agreement
1957 European Economic Community created
1971 Nixon shock, end of dollar – gold standard
1973 First oil crisis
1979 China begins economic opening to the West
1979 Second oil crisis
1981 IBM Personal Computer released
1982 Beginning of Third World Debt Crisis
1985 Microsoft Windows released
1989 Collapse of the Soviet Union
1995 Founding of WTO
1995 Euro introduced
1997 East Asian Financial Crisis
2002 Walmart becomes world’s largest TNC
2007 I-Phone released 2007
2008 Oil hits a high of $145.00 per barrel
2008 US Credit Crisis
2009 First BRIC summit
2010 Beginning of European Sovereign Debt Crisis
2015 Chinese sponsored Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank created
2015 COP 21 sets climate change target of 2C warmer than industrial revolution
2016 Trans Pacific Partnership signed
2017 US withdraws from the Trans-Pacific Partnership
2018 NAFTA renegotiated as the US-Mexican Canadian Trade Agreement
2018 Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for the Trans-Pacific Partnership comes into effect
2019 School strike for the climate becomes a global movement
2020 UK leaves the European Union (future relationship to be negotiated)
2020 Spread of Covid 19 / coronavirus threatens global health and the global economy