The Internet and the Law

First edition

by Kevin M.Rogers


Jump to >>
Chapter 1 | Chapter 2 | Chapter 3 | Chapter 4 | Chapter 5 | Chapter 6
Chapter 7 | Chapter 8 | Chapter 9 | Chapter 10 | Chapter 11

Chapter 1 – Internet Infrastructure

The Economist Social networks and statehood: The future is another country (22nd July 2010):

BBC News ’Historic’ day as first non-latin web addresses go live (6th May 2010):

France v Yahoo (Superior Court of Paris) (22nd May 2000):

The American judgment in Yahoo! v La Ligue Contre La Racsime et L’Antisemitisme (2001) C-00-21275 JT:

BBC News How governments censor the web (22nd March 2007):

BBC News Post-election clampdown in Iran (15th June 2009):

BBC News China condemns decision by Google to lift censorship (23rd March 2010): news China signals secrets clampdown (4th May 2010). Available at:

Woods, B Saudis grants RIM a BlackBerry reprieve (10th August 2010) ZDNet News:

The Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG) - ‘Report of the Working Group on Internet Governance’ (June 2005):

Affirmation of Commitments between ICANN and the American government - see:

ICANN Press Release ICANN approves Chinese Internationalised Domain Names: Board also moves forward on .XXX domain application (25th June 2010):

Nominet: Phones4u wins passing off appeal against phone4u (23rd May 2006). Available at: Google to allow trade marks as keywords across Europe (4th August 2010). Available at:

Pirate Bay:

BBC News Pirate Bay founders lose appeal (26th November 2010). Available at:

Digital Britain Report:

Digital Economy Act 2010 - Explanatory Notes:

BBC News Net providers get Digital Economy Act judicial review (10th November 2010). Available at:

Murray, A. D. Free Expression and Censorship through Design Protocols: A Misapplication of the ICANN UDRP (2002). Paper given at the 17th Annual BILETA Conference, Amsterdam:


Chapter 2 – Online Contracting

BBC News Asda apologies to customers for offering £75 discount (14th June 2010):

Directive 2000/31/EC on E-Commerce:

Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002:

UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce 1996: FSA backs OFT ban on ‘read and understand’ contract declarations (18th June 2010):


Chapter 3 – Distance Selling

Office for National Statistics E-Commerce and information and communication technology (ICT) activity 2008 Statistical Bulletin:

Centre for Retail Research:

European Union Directive 97/7/EC:

Statutory Instrument 2000 no. 2334:

BBC News Man fined over fake eBay auctions (5th July 2010). Available at: News Online retailers cannot deduct delivery fee when making refunds (15th April 2010). Available at:

OFT Press Release PN 58/03 Virgin Wine gives consumers a fairer deal online 14 May 2003:

OFT Guidance Cars and other vehicles sold by distance means: Guidance on compliance (May 2005):

Department of Trade and Industry consultation document “Consumer and Competition Policy – Consultation on proposed changes to the Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Regulations 2000”:

Statutory Instrument 2005/689

Department of Trade and Industry and the Office of Fair Trading joint publication “A guide for businesses on distance selling”:

OFT Press Release 81/06 OFT launches fact-finding market study of internet shopping (27th April 2006):

Internet Shopping: An OFT Market Study:

Office of Fair Trading E-Consumer Protection: A Public Consultation on Proposals (July 2010):

Out-Law.Com News Consumer regulator outlines plans to protect online shoppers (22nd July 2010):

European Commission Communication on the protection of Consumers in respects of Distance Contracts (September 2006) COM (2006) 514 Final:

Summary of Responses to the Consultation on Distance Selling Directive 97/7/EC contained in Communication 2006/514/EC:

COM (2008) 614 Final 2008/0196:

European Commission’s Green Paper on policy options for progress towards a European Contract Law for consumers and businesses COM (2010) 348 Final (1st July 2010):

Out-Law.Com News Commission Surrenders on full consumer law harmonisation (19th March 2010):

DBERR, Consultation on EU Proposals for a Consumer Rights Directive (November 2008):

BIS, Government Response to the Consultation Document on the EU Proposals for a Consumer Rights Directive (July 2009):

House of Lords European Union Committee EU Consumer Rights Directive: getting it right (July 2009) 18th Report of Session 2008-09:

European Commission Staff Working Document Report on cross-border e-commerce in the EU (March 2009):

Twigg-Flesner, C & Metcalfe, D The proposed Consumer Rights Directive – less haste, more thought? (2009) European Review of Contract Law, volume 6, issue 3, at SSRN:


Chapter 4 – Online Payment, Gambling and Taxation

The Payments Council:

Payments Council report entitled ‘The Way We Pay: The UK’s Payment Revolution’:


Directive 2008/45/EC:

BBC News (Watts, S) New flaws in chip and pin system revealed (11th February 2010):

BBC News Net card fraud ‘underestimated’ (23rd April 2008):

Directive 2000/46/EC:

Evaluation of the E-Money Directive 2000/46/EC for the DG Internal Market, The European Commission (17th February 2006):

European Commission Staff Working Document Review of the E-Money Directive (2000/46/EC) SEC(2006) 1049:

Directive 2009/110/EC on the taking up, pursuit and prudential supervision of the business of electronic money institutions:

Directive 2007/64/EC:

The Payment Services Regulations 2009 No. 209 Explanatory Note:

Gambling Commission Industry Statistics 2008/09 October 2009. Available at:

Department for Media, Culture and Sport Gambling Review Report (2001):

Department for Media, Culture and Sport A Safe Bet for Success – modernising Britain’s gambling laws (2002):

Department of Culture, Media and Sport A Consultation on the Regulatory Future of Remote Gambling within the United Kingdom (22nd March 2010):

A report by the Committee to Fiscal Affairs to the Ministers of the OECD Ministerial Conference (1998) Electronic Commerce: Taxation Framework Condition:

The Sixth Council Directive 77/388/EEC:

Directive 2002/38/EC:

Mansour, Y The E-Money Directive and MNOs: Why it All Went Wrong (2007) Paper presented at the 2007 BILETA Conference, University of Hertfordshire:


Chapter 5 – Online Marketing news Companies ask EU Commission to step in on Google search ranking complaint (24th February 2010):

BBC News Google buys YouTube for $1.65bn (10th October 2006):

BBC News Has the dotcom boom returned? (10th October 2006):

BBC News Whatever happened to the dotcom millionaires? (9th February 2010):

BBC News internet domain name sold for $13m (21st October 2010):

Centre for Retail Research Online Trends 2010:

Article 29 Data Protection Working Party Opinion 2/2010 on online behavioural advertising WP171 00909/10/EN:

Advertising Standards Authority News New Advertising Codes Launched (16th March 2010). Available at:

Direct Marketing Association Code of Practice (4th Edition, July 2010):

Committee of Advertising Practice New UK Advertising Codes:

Federation of European Direct Marketing FEDMA Code on E-Commerce and Interactive Marketing (September 2000):

Internet World Stats: Usage and Population Statistics Internet Usage Statistics: The Internet Big Picture World Internet Users and Population Stats (taken at 31st December 2009):

BBC News (Waters, D) Spam overwhelms email messages (8th April 2009):

The joint research project by the International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley and the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego Spamalytics: An Empirical Analysis of Spam Marketing Conversion (October 2008):

Directive 2002/58/EC:

The Information Commissioner’s guidance on the Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003:

The Advertising Standards Authority adjudication on the company (February 2007):

Statutory Instrument 2003/2426:

Information Commissioner’s Guidance:

Advertising Standards Authority Adjudication on ING Direct N. V. (5th March 2008):

Advertising Standards Authority Adjudication on Claim Management UK Limited (24th June 2009):

ASA Adjudication on Virgin Media Limited (28th July 2010):

Nigel Robert’s website:

Gordon Dick’s website: Under-caution spam faxer fined over £6000 (20th April 2009):

ASA Adjudication on Metrodome Group Plc (6th May 2009):

Human Rights Act 1998:

The Directive amending Directive 2002/58/EC and Directive 2002/22/EC: editorial: Robertson, S. Consent will be required for cookies in Europe (9th November 2009): Cookie compliance: privacy regulators make the best of a bad law (29th June 2010):


Chapter 6 – Jurisdiction and Choice of Law

Council Regulation (EC) 44/2001 (the Brussels Regulation):

The Lugano Convention:

Regulation 593/2008:

C027/34, January 1998:

Ministry of Justice Guidance on the law applicable to contractual obligations (Rome I) February 2010:

Directive 2008/58/EC:


Chapter 7 – Data Protection

Data Protection Act:

European Directive 95/46/EC:

Council for Science and Technology Report Better use of personal information: opportunities and risks (November 2005), page 2:

Article 29 Data Protection Working Party Opinion 1/2010 on the concepts of “controller” and “processor” 16th February 2010: Privacy chiefs define ‘data processor’ and ‘data controller’ (March 2010):

European Commission’s pages on the Article 29 Working Party:

Article 29 Data Protection Working Party Opinion 4/2007 on the concept of personal data 20th June 2007:

Information Commissioner’s Office Data Protection Technical Guidance: Determining what is personal data (2007):

Information Commissioner’s Office Annual Report 2006/07, July 2007:, pages 56-57.

Information Commissioner’s Office Annual Report 2008/09, July 2009:, pages 41-45.

FSA Press Release FSA fines Norwich Union £1.26m for exposing its customers to the risk of fraud17th December 2007:

FSA Press Release FSA fines BNPP Private Bank £350,000 for weak anti-fraud controls 10th May 2007:

FSA Press Release FSA fines Nationwide £980,000 for information security lapses 14th February 2007:

FSA Press Release FSA fines Capita Financial Administrators £300,000 in first anti-frauds control case 16th March 2006:

FSA Press Release FSA levies largest ever fine of £33.32 on J. P. Morgan Securities Limited for client money breaches (3rd June 2010):

House of Lords Science and Technology Committee Report on Personal Internet Security 10th August 2007:

ICO Press Release ICO welcomes new powers to fine organisations for data breaches 9th May 2008:

ICO Guidance Data Protection Act 1998: Information Commissioner’s guidance about the issue of monetary penalties prepared and issued under section 55C (1) of the Data Protection Act 1998t: Press Release Information Commissioner gets power to fine for security breaches 12th May 2008: (13th May 2008).

Ministry of Justice Civil Monetary penalties – setting the maximum penalty CP48/09:

Information Commissioner’s press release:

McCullagh, K Data Sensitivity: resolving the conundrum Paper presented to the 22nd Annual BILETA Conference, held University of Hertfordshire April 2007:

BBC Press Release: UK’s families put on fraud alert (20th November 2007):

BBC News Millions of L-Driver details lost 17th December 2007:

BBC News Nine NHS trusts lose patient data 23rd December 2008:

BBC News Government laptops ‘not secure’ 15th September 2003:

HM Treasury Review of information security at HM Revenue and Customs (Final Report) June 2008:

European Commission website:

Commission Decision 520/2000/EC of 26th July 2000 pursuant to Directive 95/46/EC: Press Release Why we don’t need a security breach notification law in the UK (19th May 2008):

Ministry of Justice Call for Evidence on the Current Data Protection Legislative Framework (6th July 2010):


Chapter 8 – Freedom of Expression and Defamation High Court ruling serves as a warning against any moderation of user comments (8th April 2010):

Law Commission Scoping Study No. 2:

George, C & Scerri, J Web 2.0 and User-Generated Content: legal challenges in the new frontier (2007) Journal of Information Law and Technology, volume 2:

Ministry of Justice Report of the Libel Working Group (23rd March 2010): Government outlines new libel law plans (12th July 2010): Lord Lester proposals for a new libel law:

Ministry of Justice Defamation and the Internet: the multiple publication rule CP20/09 (September 2009):

Ministry of Justice Response Defamation and the internet: the multiple publication rule CP(R) 20/09 (23rd March 2010):


Chapter 9 – Web 2.0 and Social Networking

BBC News Magazine The decline of instant messaging (24th May 2010):

Clark, J Facebook hits one in six UK page views (10th August 2010) ZDNet News:

BBC News Facebook changes privacy policy 27th August 2009. Available at:

Home Office Task Force on Child Protection on the Internet 2008 document Good practice guidance for the providers of social networking and other user interactive services:

BBC News Boy detained for Facebook insult murder in London (22nd June 2010):

CEOPs Press Release Facebook and CEOP join forces to deliver internet safety to young internet users (12th July 2010):

The Megan Meier Foundation website:

Ryan’s Story available at:

European Commission 2009 document ‘Safer Social Networking Principles for the EU:

Internet Watch Foundation:

Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre:

Information Commissioner’s Office Good Practice Note Collecting personal information using websites. (June 2007): news release Virgin Atlantic sacks 13 over Facebook comments 4th November 2008:

Employee’s privacy breached by employer’s monitoring (24th April 2007), The Times:

Article 29 Data Protection Working Party Opinion 5/2009 on online social networking (June 2009) 01189/09/EN WP 163:

Article 29 Data Protection Working Party Opinion 1/2008 on data protection issues relating to search engines (April 2008) 00737/EN WP 148:

Speech given by Peter Hustinx, the European Data Protection Supervisor at the 3rd European Cyber Security Awareness Day (13th April 2010) entitled Data Protection and Cloud Computing under EU Law:


Chapter 10 - Internet and other computer related Offences News Telling lies to a computer is still lying, rules High Court (23rd November 2007):

The Law Commission Report No. 276/CM 5560 Fraud July 2002:

The Law Commission Report No. 276/CM 5560 Fraud July 2002:

Home Office consultation exercise (2004):

Get Safe Online Report:

Ashford, W UK Internet users need to be more vigilant as online fraud hits £3.5bnsays VeriSign (1st June 2010):

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills Digital Britain: Final Report (June 2009):

Background on the Digital Britain report and the Digital Economy Bill:

from pages 836-936.

BBC News Anger about digital ‘stitch up’ 8th April 2010: Opinion The legislative farce of the Digital Economy Bill 7th April 2010:

On the passing of the Digital Economy Bill:

The Cabinet Office Cyber Security Strategy of the United Kingdom: Safety, Security and Resilience in Cyber Space (June 2009):

The Convention of Cybercrime:

BBC Website How Gary Mckinnon became a cause celebre (4th August 2009):

BBC Website Ministers agree Gary McKinnon hacker case adjournment(20th May 2010):


Chapter 11 – Online Pornography and Cyber-Harassment

Internet Filter Review, 2006. Around 2,755 websites in the English language containing indecent images of children. Internet Watch Foundation Annual and Charity Report, 2007:

Consultation on the possession of extreme pornographic material (Home Office, August 2005):

Ministry of Justice’s Information Note Further information on the new offence of Possession of Extreme Pornographic Images (November 2008):

Home Office Consultation Paper on the Possession of Non-Photographic Visual Depictions of Child Sexual Abuse:

Coroners and Justice Act:

Internet Watch Foundation News Public reports help remove child sex abuse images (14th October 2009):

BBC News Facebook child abuse images ringleader jailed (26th August 2010):

BBC News UK probe into online porn (14th April 2004):

Arthur, C When will we know whether Operation Ore was a success? (17th May 2007) The Guardian:

Leppard, D Child porn suspects set to be cleared in evidence ‘shambles’ (3rd July 2005) The Sunday Times:

Internet Watch Foundation:

Internet Watch Foundation Coroners and Justice Act 2009:

Internet Watch Foundation News Public reports help remove child sex abuse images (14th October 2009):

Malicious Communications Act:

BBC News Man jailed over tsunami emails (24th January 2005):

Claburn, T. (Information Week) Twitter Bomb Joke Convicted (10th May 2010):

Leydon, J. (The Register) Twitter bomb joker found guilty (10th May 2010): News UK war driver fined £500 (25th July 2005). Available at:

The Electronic Commerce Directive (Hatred against Persons on Religious Grounds or the Grounds of Sexual Orientation) Regulation 2010: News E-Commerce Regulations updated to exempt ISPs from hate speech charges 14th January 2010):