The Internet and the Law

First edition

by Kevin M.Rogers

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Chapter 1 | Chapter 2 | Chapter 3 | Chapter 4 | Chapter 5 | Chapter 6
Chapter 7 | Chapter 8 | Chapter 9 | Chapter 10 | Chapter 11


Chapter 1 – Internet Infrastructure

The Economist Social networks and statehood: The future is another country (22nd July 2010):
http://www.economist.com/node/16646000.

BBC News ’Historic’ day as first non-latin web addresses go live (6th May 2010):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/10100108.stm.

France v Yahoo (Superior Court of Paris) (22nd May 2000):
http://www.juriscom.net/txt/jurisfr/cti/yauctions20000522.htm.

The American judgment in Yahoo! v La Ligue Contre La Racsime et L’Antisemitisme (2001) C-00-21275 JT:
http://w2.eff.org/Jurisdiction_and_sovereignty/20011107_us_distct_decision.pdf.

BBC News How governments censor the web (22nd March 2007):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/6475911.stm.

BBC News Post-election clampdown in Iran (15th June 2009):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/8100310.stm.

BBC News China condemns decision by Google to lift censorship (23rd March 2010):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/8582233.stm.

Out-Law.com news China signals secrets clampdown (4th May 2010). Available at:
http://www.out-law.com/page-10987.

Woods, B Saudis grants RIM a BlackBerry reprieve (10th August 2010) ZDNet News:
http://www.zdnet.co.uk/news/regulation/saudis-grant-rim-a-blackberry-repreieve-40089785/.

The Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG) - ‘Report of the Working Group on Internet Governance’ (June 2005):
http://www.wgig.org/docs/WGIGREPORT.pdf.

Affirmation of Commitments between ICANN and the American government - see:
http://www.icann.org/en/announcements/announcement-30sep09-en.htm.

ICANN Press Release ICANN approves Chinese Internationalised Domain Names: Board also moves forward on .XXX domain application (25th June 2010):
http://icann.org/en/news/releases/release-25jun10-en.pdf.

Nominet: http://www.nic.uk.

Out-Law.com Phones4u wins passing off appeal against phone4u (23rd May 2006). Available at:
http://www.out0law.com/page-6942-theme=print.

Out-Law.com Google to allow trade marks as keywords across Europe (4th August 2010). Available at:
http://www.out-law.com/page-11278-theme=print.

Pirate Bay:
http://thepiratebay.org/

BBC News Pirate Bay founders lose appeal (26th November 2010). Available at:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-11847200

Digital Britain Report:
http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/cm76/7650/7650.pdf.

Digital Economy Act 2010 - Explanatory Notes:
http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2010/24/notes?timeline=true.

BBC News Net providers get Digital Economy Act judicial review (10th November 2010). Available at:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-11724760.

Murray, A. D. Free Expression and Censorship through Design Protocols: A Misapplication of the ICANN UDRP (2002). Paper given at the 17th Annual BILETA Conference, Amsterdam:
www.bileta.ac.uk/Censorship%20Through%20Design%20Protocols%20-%20A%20Misapplication%20of%20the%20ICANN%20UDRP.pdf

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Chapter 2 – Online Contracting

BBC News Asda apologies to customers for offering £75 discount (14th June 2010):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/10312959.stm.

Directive 2000/31/EC on E-Commerce:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0031:EN:NOT.

Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2002/20022013.htm

UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce 1996:
http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/uncitral_texts/electronic_commerce/1996Model.html.

Out-Law.com FSA backs OFT ban on ‘read and understand’ contract declarations (18th June 2010):
http://www.out-law.com/page-11149.

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Chapter 3 – Distance Selling

Office for National Statistics E-Commerce and information and communication technology (ICT) activity 2008 Statistical Bulletin:
http://www.statistics.gov.uk/pdfdir/ecom1109.pdf.

Centre for Retail Research:
http://www.retailresearch.org/reports/onlinetrends_2010.php.

European Union Directive 97/7/EC:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31997L0007:EN:HTML.

Statutory Instrument 2000 no. 2334:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2000/20002334.htm.

BBC News Man fined over fake eBay auctions (5th July 2010). Available at:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/10508913.

Out-Law.com News Online retailers cannot deduct delivery fee when making refunds (15th April 2010). Available at:
http://www.out-law.com/page-10919.

OFT Press Release PN 58/03 Virgin Wine gives consumers a fairer deal online 14 May 2003:
http://www.oft.gov.uk/news/press/2003/pn_58-03.

OFT Guidance Cars and other vehicles sold by distance means: Guidance on compliance (May 2005):
http://www.oft.gov.uk/shared_oft/reports/consumer_protection/oft689.pdf.

Department of Trade and Industry consultation document “Consumer and Competition Policy – Consultation on proposed changes to the Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Regulations 2000”:
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/tna/+/http://www.dti.gov.uk/ccp/consultpdf/distselcon04.pdf/.

Statutory Instrument 2005/689
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2005/20050689.htm.

Department of Trade and Industry and the Office of Fair Trading joint publication “A guide for businesses on distance selling”:
http://www.oft.gov.uk/advice_and_resources/resource_base/legal/distance-selling-regulations.

OFT Press Release 81/06 OFT launches fact-finding market study of internet shopping (27th April 2006):
http://www.oft.gov.uk/News/Press+releases/2006/81-06.htm.

Internet Shopping: An OFT Market Study:
http://www.oft.gov.uk/shared_oft/reports/consumer_protection/oft921.pdf.

Office of Fair Trading E-Consumer Protection: A Public Consultation on Proposals (July 2010):
http://www.oft.gov.uk/OFTwork/consultations/current/eprotection/.

Out-Law.Com News Consumer regulator outlines plans to protect online shoppers (22nd July 2010):
http://www.out-law.com/page-11243-theme=print.

European Commission Communication on the protection of Consumers in respects of Distance Contracts (September 2006) COM (2006) 514 Final:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:52006DC0514:EN:NOT.

Summary of Responses to the Consultation on Distance Selling Directive 97/7/EC contained in Communication 2006/514/EC:
http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cons_int/safe_shop/dist_sell/sum_responses_consultations_en.pdf.

COM (2008) 614 Final 2008/0196:
http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/rights/cons_acquis_en.htm.

European Commission’s Green Paper on policy options for progress towards a European Contract Law for consumers and businesses COM (2010) 348 Final (1st July 2010):
http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/justice/summary/summary_intro_en.htm.

Out-Law.Com News Commission Surrenders on full consumer law harmonisation (19th March 2010):
http://www.out-law.com/page-10842-theme=print.

DBERR, Consultation on EU Proposals for a Consumer Rights Directive (November 2008):
http://www.berr.gov.uk/consultations/page48780.html.

BIS, Government Response to the Consultation Document on the EU Proposals for a Consumer Rights Directive (July 2009):
http://www.berr.gov.uk/consultations/page48780.html.

House of Lords European Union Committee EU Consumer Rights Directive: getting it right (July 2009) 18th Report of Session 2008-09:
http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld200809/ldselect/ldeucom/126/126i.pdf.

European Commission Staff Working Document Report on cross-border e-commerce in the EU (March 2009):
http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/strategy/docs/com_staff_wp2009_en.pdf.

Twigg-Flesner, C & Metcalfe, D The proposed Consumer Rights Directive – less haste, more thought? (2009) European Review of Contract Law, volume 6, issue 3, at SSRN:
http://ssrn.com/abstract=1345783.

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Chapter 4 – Online Payment, Gambling and Taxation

The Payments Council:
http://www.paymentscouncil.org.uk

Payments Council report entitled ‘The Way We Pay: The UK’s Payment Revolution’:
http://www.paymentscouncil.org.uk//files/payments_council/the_way_we_pay_2010_final.pdf.

Mondex:
http://www.mondex.com/.

Directive 2008/45/EC:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:133:0066:0092:EN:PDF.

BBC News (Watts, S) New flaws in chip and pin system revealed (11th February 2010):
http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/newsnight/susanwatts/2010/02/new_flaws_in_chip_and_pin_syst.html.

BBC News Net card fraud ‘underestimated’ (23rd April 2008):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7362055.stm.

Directive 2000/46/EC:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2000:275:0039:0043:EN:PDF.

Evaluation of the E-Money Directive 2000/46/EC for the DG Internal Market, The European Commission (17th February 2006):
http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/payments/docs/emoney/evaluation_en.pdf.

European Commission Staff Working Document Review of the E-Money Directive (2000/46/EC) SEC(2006) 1049:
http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/payments/docs/emoney/working-document_en.pdf.

Directive 2009/110/EC on the taking up, pursuit and prudential supervision of the business of electronic money institutions:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:267:0007:0017:EN:PDF.

Directive 2007/64/EC:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:319:0001:01:en:HTML.

The Payment Services Regulations 2009 No. 209 Explanatory Note:
https://opsi.gov.uk/si/si2009/uksi_20090209_en_16.

Gambling Commission Industry Statistics 2008/09 October 2009. Available at:
http://www.gamblingcommission.gov.uk/pdf/update%20-%20October%202009.pdf.

Department for Media, Culture and Sport Gambling Review Report (2001):
http://www.culture.gov.uk/reference_library/publications/4642.aspx.

Department for Media, Culture and Sport A Safe Bet for Success – modernising Britain’s gambling laws (2002):
http://www.culture.gov.uk/reference_library/publications/4754.aspx.

Department of Culture, Media and Sport A Consultation on the Regulatory Future of Remote Gambling within the United Kingdom (22nd March 2010):
http://www.culture.gov.uk/images/consultations/remotegambling_consultation.pdf.

A report by the Committee to Fiscal Affairs to the Ministers of the OECD Ministerial Conference (1998) Electronic Commerce: Taxation Framework Condition:
http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/46/3/1923256.pdf.

The Sixth Council Directive 77/388/EEC:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31977L0388:EN:HTML.

Directive 2002/38/EC:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2002:128:0041:0044:en:PDF.

Mansour, Y The E-Money Directive and MNOs: Why it All Went Wrong (2007) Paper presented at the 2007 BILETA Conference, University of Hertfordshire:
http://www.bileta.ac.uk/Document%20Library/1/The%20E-Money%20Directive%20and%20MNOs%20-%20Why%20it%20All%20Went%20Wrong.pdf

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Chapter 5 – Online Marketing

Out-Law.com news Companies ask EU Commission to step in on Google search ranking complaint (24th February 2010):
http://www.out-law.com/page-10784-theme=print.

BBC News Google buys YouTube for $1.65bn (10th October 2006):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/6034577.stm.

BBC News Has the dotcom boom returned? (10th October 2006):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/6036337.stm.

BBC News Whatever happened to the dotcom millionaires? (9th February 2010):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/8505260.stm.

BBC News Sex.com internet domain name sold for $13m (21st October 2010):
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-11596477.

Centre for Retail Research Online Trends 2010:
http://www.retailresearch.org/reports/onlinetrends_2010.php.

Article 29 Data Protection Working Party Opinion 2/2010 on online behavioural advertising WP171 00909/10/EN:
http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/privacy/index_en.htm.00909/10/EN.

Advertising Standards Authority News New Advertising Codes Launched (16th March 2010). Available at:
http://www.asa.org.uk/Media-Centre/2010/New-Advertising-Codes-Launch.aspx

Direct Marketing Association Code of Practice (4th Edition, July 2010):
http://www.dma.org.uk/_attachments/resources/45_S4.pdf.

Committee of Advertising Practice New UK Advertising Codes:
http://www.cap.org.uk/The-Codes/CAP-Code.aspx

Federation of European Direct Marketing FEDMA Code on E-Commerce and Interactive Marketing (September 2000):
http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/12/21/2091875.pdf.

Internet World Stats: Usage and Population Statistics Internet Usage Statistics: The Internet Big Picture World Internet Users and Population Stats (taken at 31st December 2009):
http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm.

BBC News (Waters, D) Spam overwhelms email messages (8th April 2009):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/7988579.stm.

The joint research project by the International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley and the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego Spamalytics: An Empirical Analysis of Spam Marketing Conversion (October 2008):
http://www.icsi.berkeley.edu/pubs/networking/2008-ccs-spamalytics.pdf.

Directive 2002/58/EC:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32002L0058:EN:HTML.

The Information Commissioner’s guidance on the Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003:
http://www.ico.gov.uk/what_we_cover/privacy_and_electronic_communications/guidance.aspx.

The Advertising Standards Authority adjudication on the company (February 2007):
http://www.asa.org.uk/Complaints-and-ASA-action/Adjudications/2007/2/World-Networks/TF_ADJ_42217.aspx.

Statutory Instrument 2003/2426:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2003/20032426.htm.

Information Commissioner’s Guidance:
http://www.ico.gov.uk/what_we_cover/privacy_and_electronic_communications/guidance.aspx.

Advertising Standards Authority Adjudication on ING Direct N. V. (5th March 2008):
http://www.asa.org.uk/Complaints-and-ASA-action/Adjudications/2008/3/ING-Direct-NV/TF_ADJ_44091.aspx.

Advertising Standards Authority Adjudication on Claim Management UK Limited (24th June 2009):
http://www.asa.org.uk/Complaints-and-ASA-action/Adjudications/2009/6/Claim-Management-UK-Ltd/TF_ADJ_46452.aspx.

ASA Adjudication on Virgin Media Limited (28th July 2010):
http://www.asa.org.uk/Complaints-and-ASA-action/Adjudications/2010/7/Virgin-Media-Ltd/TF_ADJ_48855.aspx.

Nigel Robert’s website:
http://spamlegalaction.pbwiki.com/.

Gordon Dick’s website:
http://www.scotchspam.com/transcom.html.

Out-Law.com Under-caution spam faxer fined over £6000 (20th April 2009):
http://out-law.com/page-9958-theme=print.

ASA Adjudication on Metrodome Group Plc (6th May 2009):
http://www.asa.org.uk/Complaints-and-ASA-action/Adjudications/2009/5/Metrodome-Group-plc/TF_ADJ_46218.aspx.

Human Rights Act 1998:
http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1998/19980042.htm.

The Directive amending Directive 2002/58/EC and Directive 2002/22/EC:
http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/09/st03/st03674.en09.pdf.

Out-Law.com editorial: Robertson, S. Consent will be required for cookies in Europe (9th November 2009):
http://www.out-law.com/page-10510-theme=print.

Out-Law.com Cookie compliance: privacy regulators make the best of a bad law (29th June 2010):
http://www.out-law.com/page-11185-theme=print.

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Chapter 6 – Jurisdiction and Choice of Law

Council Regulation (EC) 44/2001 (the Brussels Regulation):
http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/justice_freedom_security/judicial_cooperation_in_civil_matters/l33054_en.htm.

The Lugano Convention:
http://curia.europa.eu/common/recdoc/convention/en/c-textes/_lug-textes.htm.

Regulation 593/2008:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:177:0006:0016:EN:PDF.

C027/34, January 1998:
http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/justice_freedom_security/judicial_cooperation_in_civil_matters/l33109_en.htm

Ministry of Justice Guidance on the law applicable to contractual obligations (Rome I) February 2010:
http://www.justice.gov.uk/publications/contractual-obligations-rome.htm.

Directive 2008/58/EC:
http://www.arbitration-adr.org/mater/Directive%202008-52-EC_en.pdf.

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Chapter 7 – Data Protection

Data Protection Act:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/Acts/Acts1998/ukpga_19980029_en_1.

European Directive 95/46/EC:
http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/privacy/docs/95-46-ce/dir1995-46_part1_en.pdf.

Council for Science and Technology Report Better use of personal information: opportunities and risks (November 2005), page 2:
http://www.cst.gov.uk/cst/reports/files/personal-information/report.pdf.

Article 29 Data Protection Working Party Opinion 1/2010 on the concepts of “controller” and “processor” 16th February 2010:
http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/privacy/docs/wpdocs/2010/wp169_en.pdf.

Out-Law.com Privacy chiefs define ‘data processor’ and ‘data controller’ (March 2010):
http://www.out-law.com/page-10836-theme=print.

European Commission’s pages on the Article 29 Working Party:
http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/privacy/workinggroup/index_en.htm.

Article 29 Data Protection Working Party Opinion 4/2007 on the concept of personal data 20th June 2007:
http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/privacy/docs/wpdocs/2007/wp136_en.pdf.

Information Commissioner’s Office Data Protection Technical Guidance: Determining what is personal data (2007):
http://www.ico.gov.uk/about_us/news_and_views/current_topics/what_is_personal_data.aspx.

Information Commissioner’s Office Annual Report 2006/07, July 2007: http://www.ico.gov.uk/upload/documents/annual_report_2007_html/index.html, pages 56-57.

Information Commissioner’s Office Annual Report 2008/09, July 2009:
http://www.ico.gov.uk/upload/documents/library/corporate/detailed_specialist_guides/annual_report_2009.pdf, pages 41-45.

FSA Press Release FSA fines Norwich Union £1.26m for exposing its customers to the risk of fraud17th December 2007:
http://www.fsa.gov.uk/pages/Library/Communication/PR/2007/130.shtml.

FSA Press Release FSA fines BNPP Private Bank £350,000 for weak anti-fraud controls 10th May 2007:
http://www.fsa.gov.uk/pages/Library/Communication/PR/2007/060.shtml.

FSA Press Release FSA fines Nationwide £980,000 for information security lapses 14th February 2007:
http://www.fsa.gov.uk/pages/Library/Communication/PR/2007/021.shtml.

FSA Press Release FSA fines Capita Financial Administrators £300,000 in first anti-frauds control case 16th March 2006:
http://www.fsa.gov.uk/pages/Library/Communication/PR/2006/019.shtml.

FSA Press Release FSA levies largest ever fine of £33.32 on J. P. Morgan Securities Limited for client money breaches (3rd June 2010):
http://www.fsa.gov.uk/pages/Library/Communication/PR/2010/089.shtml.

House of Lords Science and Technology Committee Report on Personal Internet Security 10th August 2007:
http://www.parliament.uk/parliamentary_committees/lords_s_t_select/internet.cfm

ICO Press Release ICO welcomes new powers to fine organisations for data breaches 9th May 2008:
http://www.ico.gov.uk/about_us/news_and_views/press_releases.aspx.

ICO Guidance Data Protection Act 1998: Information Commissioner’s guidance about the issue of monetary penalties prepared and issued under section 55C (1) of the Data Protection Act 1998t:
http://www.ico.gov.uk/upload/documents/library/guidance_monetary_penalties.pdf.

Out-law.com Press Release Information Commissioner gets power to fine for security breaches 12th May 2008:
http://out-law.com/page-9110-theme=print (13th May 2008).

Ministry of Justice Civil Monetary penalties – setting the maximum penalty CP48/09:
http://www.justice.gov.uk/consultations/civil-monetary-penalties-consultation.htm.

Information Commissioner’s press release:
http://www.ico.gov.uk/upload/documents/pressreleases/2009/kerr_sentencing_160709.pdf.

McCullagh, K Data Sensitivity: resolving the conundrum Paper presented to the 22nd Annual BILETA Conference, held University of Hertfordshire April 2007:
http://www.bileta.ac.uk/pages/Conference%20Papers.aspx.

BBC Press Release: UK’s families put on fraud alert (20th November 2007):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7103566.stm.

BBC News Millions of L-Driver details lost 17th December 2007:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7147715.stm.

BBC News Nine NHS trusts lose patient data 23rd December 2008:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7158019.stm

BBC News Government laptops ‘not secure’ 15th September 2003:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/3109602.stm.

HM Treasury Review of information security at HM Revenue and Customs (Final Report) June 2008:
http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/independent_reviews/poynter_review/poynter_review_index.cfm.

European Commission website:
http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/privacy/thridcountries/index_en.htm.

Commission Decision 520/2000/EC of 26th July 2000 pursuant to Directive 95/46/EC:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000D0520:EN:NOT.

Out-Law.com Press Release Why we don’t need a security breach notification law in the UK (19th May 2008):
http://out-law.com/page-9128-theme=print.

Ministry of Justice Call for Evidence on the Current Data Protection Legislative Framework (6th July 2010):
http://www.justice.gov.uk/call-for-evidence-060710.htm.

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Chapter 8 – Freedom of Expression and Defamation

Out-Law.com High Court ruling serves as a warning against any moderation of user comments (8th April 2010):
http://www.out-law.com/page-10902.

Law Commission Scoping Study No. 2:
http://www.lawcom.gov.uk/docs/defamation2.pdf.

George, C & Scerri, J Web 2.0 and User-Generated Content: legal challenges in the new frontier (2007) Journal of Information Law and Technology, volume 2:
http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/jilt/2007_2/george_scerri/.

Ministry of Justice Report of the Libel Working Group (23rd March 2010):
http://www.justice.gov.uk/publications/docs/libel-working-group-report.pdf.

Out-law.com Government outlines new libel law plans (12th July 2010):
http://www.out-law.com/page=11219-theme=print.

Out-law.com Lord Lester proposals for a new libel law:
http://www.out-law.com/page-11083.

Ministry of Justice Defamation and the Internet: the multiple publication rule CP20/09 (September 2009):
http://www.justice.gov.uk/consultations/docs/defamation-consultation-paper.pdf.

Ministry of Justice Response Defamation and the internet: the multiple publication rule CP(R) 20/09 (23rd March 2010):
http://www.justice.gov.uk/consultations/docs/defamation-internet-response-web.pdf.

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Chapter 9 – Web 2.0 and Social Networking

BBC News Magazine The decline of instant messaging (24th May 2010):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/magazine/8698174.stm.

Clark, J Facebook hits one in six UK page views (10th August 2010) ZDNet News:
http://www.zdnet.co.uk/news/workspace-it/2010/08/10/facebook-hits-one-in-six-uk-page-views-40089784/.

BBC News Facebook changes privacy policy 27th August 2009. Available at:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/8225338.stm.

Home Office Task Force on Child Protection on the Internet 2008 document Good practice guidance for the providers of social networking and other user interactive services:
http://police.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/operational-policing/social-networking-guidance/

BBC News Boy detained for Facebook insult murder in London (22nd June 2010):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/london/10372678.stm.

CEOPs Press Release Facebook and CEOP join forces to deliver internet safety to young internet users (12th July 2010):
http://www.ceop.police.uk/mediacentre/pressreleases/2010/ceop_12072010fb.asp.

The Megan Meier Foundation website:
http://www.meganmeierfoundation.org/.

Ryan’s Story available at:
http://www.ryanpatrickhalligan.org/.

European Commission 2009 document ‘Safer Social Networking Principles for the EU:
http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/social_networking/docs/sn_principles.pdf.

Internet Watch Foundation:
http://www.iwf.org.uk.

Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre:
http://www.ceop.gov.uk.

Information Commissioner’s Office Good Practice Note Collecting personal information using websites. (June 2007):
http://www.ico.gov.uk/practical_application/information_from_websites_v1.0.pdf.

Out-Law.com news release Virgin Atlantic sacks 13 over Facebook comments 4th November 2008:
http://www.out-law.com/default.aspx?page=9554.

Employee’s privacy breached by employer’s monitoring (24th April 2007), The Times:
http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/law/reports/article1695516.ece.

Article 29 Data Protection Working Party Opinion 5/2009 on online social networking (June 2009) 01189/09/EN WP 163:
http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/privacy/docs/wpdocs/2009/wp163_en.pdf.

Article 29 Data Protection Working Party Opinion 1/2008 on data protection issues relating to search engines (April 2008) 00737/EN WP 148:
http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/privacy/docs/wpdocs/2008/wp148_en.pdf.

Speech given by Peter Hustinx, the European Data Protection Supervisor at the 3rd European Cyber Security Awareness Day (13th April 2010) entitled Data Protection and Cloud Computing under EU Law:
http://www.edps.europa.eu/EDPSWEB/edps/site/mySite/SA2010.

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Chapter 10 - Internet and other computer related Offences

Out-Law.com News Telling lies to a computer is still lying, rules High Court (23rd November 2007):
http://www.out-law.com/default.aspx?page=8660.

The Law Commission Report No. 276/CM 5560 Fraud July 2002:
http://www.lawcom.gov.uk/lc_reports.htm#2002.

The Law Commission Report No. 276/CM 5560 Fraud July 2002:
http://www.lawcom.gov.uk/lc_reports.htm#2002.

Home Office consultation exercise (2004):
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/documents/cons-fraud-law-reform.

Get Safe Online Report:
http://www.getsafeonline.org/nqcontent.cfm?a_id=1517.

Ashford, W UK Internet users need to be more vigilant as online fraud hits £3.5bnsays VeriSign (1st June 2010):
http://www.computerweekly.com/UK-internet-users-need-to-be-more-vigilant.5bn-says.htm.

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills Digital Britain: Final Report (June 2009):
http://www.culture.gov.uk/what_we_do/broadcasting/6216.aspx

Background on the Digital Britain report and the Digital Economy Bill:
http://www.culture.gov.uk/what_we_do/broadcasting/5631.aspx

Hansard:
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200910/cmhansrd/chan67.pdf
from pages 836-936.

BBC News Anger about digital ‘stitch up’ 8th April 2010:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/election_2010/8608478.stm.

Out-Law.com Opinion The legislative farce of the Digital Economy Bill 7th April 2010:
http://out-law.com/page-10900.

On the passing of the Digital Economy Bill:
http://debillitated.heroku.com.

The Cabinet Office Cyber Security Strategy of the United Kingdom: Safety, Security and Resilience in Cyber Space (June 2009):
http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/reports/cyber_security.aspx.

The Convention of Cybercrime:
http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/treaties/html/189.htm.

BBC Website How Gary Mckinnon became a cause celebre (4th August 2009):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/8181100.stm.

BBC Website Ministers agree Gary McKinnon hacker case adjournment(20th May 2010):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8694210.stm.

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Chapter 11 – Online Pornography and Cyber-Harassment

Internet Filter Review, 2006. Around 2,755 websites in the English language containing indecent images of children. Internet Watch Foundation Annual and Charity Report, 2007:
http://www.iwf.org.uk/accountability/annual-reports/2007-annual-report

Consultation on the possession of extreme pornographic material (Home Office, August 2005):
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/documents/cons-extreme-porn-3008051/.

Ministry of Justice’s Information Note Further information on the new offence of Possession of Extreme Pornographic Images (November 2008):
http://www.justice.gov.uk/publications/criminal-extreme-offence.htm.

Home Office Consultation Paper on the Possession of Non-Photographic Visual Depictions of Child Sexual Abuse:
http://www.justice.gov.uk/publications/non-photographic-depictions.htm.

Coroners and Justice Act:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2009/ukpga_20090025_en_1.

Internet Watch Foundation News Public reports help remove child sex abuse images (14th October 2009):
http://www.iwf.org.uk/about-iwf/news/post/268-public-reports-help-remove-child-sexual-abuse-images

BBC News Facebook child abuse images ringleader jailed (26th August 2010):
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-11101149?print=true.

BBC News UK probe into online porn (14th April 2004):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/3625603.stm

Arthur, C When will we know whether Operation Ore was a success? (17th May 2007) The Guardian:
http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2007/may/17/guardianweeklytechnologysection2.

Leppard, D Child porn suspects set to be cleared in evidence ‘shambles’ (3rd July 2005) The Sunday Times:
http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article539974.ece.

Internet Watch Foundation:
http://www.iwf.org.uk/

Internet Watch Foundation Coroners and Justice Act 2009:
http://www.iwf.org.uk/hotline/the-laws/non-photographic-child-sexual-abuse-images/coroners-and-justice-act-2009

Internet Watch Foundation News Public reports help remove child sex abuse images (14th October 2009):
http://www.iwf.org.uk/about-iwf/news/post/268-public-reports-help-remove-child-sexual-abuse-images

Malicious Communications Act:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/ACTS/acts1988/Ukpga_19880027_en_1.htm.

BBC News Man jailed over tsunami emails (24th January 2005):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/lincolnshire/4201775.stm.

Claburn, T. (Information Week) Twitter Bomb Joke Convicted (10th May 2010):
http://www.informationweek.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=224701387.

Leydon, J. (The Register) Twitter bomb joker found guilty (10th May 2010):
http://www.theregister.co.uk/2010/05/10/twitter_bomb_joker_guilty/.

Out-Law.com News UK war driver fined £500 (25th July 2005). Available at:
http://www.out-law.com/page-5938.

The Electronic Commerce Directive (Hatred against Persons on Religious Grounds or the Grounds of Sexual Orientation) Regulation 2010:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2010/draft/ukdsi_9780111490402_en_1.

Out-Law.com News E-Commerce Regulations updated to exempt ISPs from hate speech charges 14th January 2010):
http://www.out-law.com/page-10664.

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