Crucially, the foundations of good psychology, in both practice and knowledge, are the ability to understand and carry out effective methods in psychological research. Subsequently, this title aims to introduce students to a...Show More
Crucially, the foundations of good psychology, in both practice and knowledge, are the ability to understand and carry out effective methods in psychological research. Subsequently, this title aims to introduce students to a thorough history of the key psychological studies across the sub-disciplines of social, developmental, cognitive and biological psychology as well as neuroscience. Research case-studies are described and critiqued encouraging students to critically think about the wider implications of how research is conducted and the subsequent findings that they produce. The pivotal case studies covered have been specifically chosen to illustrate how psychological methods in research have evolved over the history of the discipline and to showcase as broad an overview as possible of the various ways in which research may be conducted; including controlled experiments, in-depth interviewing and literature searches.
The book is essential for undergraduate students looking for a comprehensive and clearly written guide to both the classic and contemporary studies that have informed the research methods in the discipline of psychology today. This book has been written to provide clear and well-explained summaries that encourage critical reflection and discussion of the material learnt, making this an apt introduction for students wishing to learn about the valid methods of carrying out empirical research.Show Less
- Written in a non-rhetorical or conclusionary style so as to encourage critical reflection from the reader
- End of chapter questions to consolidate material learnt throughout chapters
- The addition of 14 new case studies and an expanded section on methodology
- Key words, concepts and terms are highlighted and explained along page margins, allowing readers to maintain a progressive reading of the text
- Broad coverage of all the main branches of psychology
CHAPTER 1 SOCIAL INFLUENCE
EIGHT OUT OF TEN OWNERS SAID THEIR CATS PREFERRED IT
ASCH, S. E. (1955). Opinions and social pressure. Scientific American, 193, 31-35.
BE A GOOD BOY AND DO AS YOU ARE TOLD
MILGRAM, S. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 371-78.
PILIAVIN, I.M., RODIN, J.A & PILIVIN,J. (1969) Good Samaritanism: An underground phenomenon? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 13, 289-99
WALK ON BY
LEVINE, R.M (1999) Rethinking bystander on-intervention. Human Relations, 52, 1133-1155
CHAPTER 2 SOCIAL JUDGEMENTS
IS SHE REALLY GOING OUT WITH HIM?
NISBETT, R. E., CAPUTO, C., LEGANT, P. & MARECEK, J. (1973). Behaviour as seen by the actor and as seen by the observer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27, 154-64.
I'M NOT PREJUDICED, BUT ...
LaPIERE, R. T. (1934). Attitudes vs. actions. Social Forces, 13, 230-37.
CHANGING OUR MINDS
FESTINGER, L. & CARLSMITH, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-10.
THE MINIMAL GROUP STUDIES
TAJFEL, H. (1970). Experiments in intergroup discrimination. Scientific American, 223, 96-102.
SHOCK AND AWE
FISCHOFF et al. (2005) Evolving Judgements of Terror Risks: Foresight, Hindsight and Emotion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: 2005, Vol 11, No2 124-139
CHAPTER 3 SOCIAL INTERACTION
THE ROBBER'S CAVE
SHERIF, M. (1956). Experiments in group conflict. Scientific American, 195, 54-58.
REICHER, S & HASLAM, S.A (2006) Rethinking the Psychology of tyranny: The BBC prison study BJSP 45 1-40
THE MOTHER AND FATHER OF ALL GROUPS
BALES, R.F (1955). How people interact in conferences. Scientific American 192, 31-35
THE PRISON SIMULATION
HANEY, C, BANKS, W.C & ZIMBARDO, P.G ( 1973) A study of prisoners and guards in a simulated prison. Naval Research Review, 30 4-17
SMALL WORLDS AND GETTING SMALLER
DODD, P. MUHAMAD, R & WATTS, D (2003) An experimental study of search in global social networks. Science, 301, 827-829
SECTION TWO COMPARATIVE AND BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
CHAPTER 4 LEARNING
THE FLIGHT OF THE KILLER PIGEONS
SKINNER, B.F. (1960). Pigeons in a pelican. American Psychologist, 15, 28-37.
WHAT'S YOUR PLEASURE?
OLDS, J., & MILNER, P. (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of the septal area and other regions of the rat brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47, 419-427.
LEARNING TO BE HELPLESS
SELIGMAN, M. E. P. & MAIER, S. F. (1967). Failure to escape traumatic shock. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 1-9.
TALKING TO THE ANIMALS
GARDNER. R. A. & GARDNER, B. T. (1969). Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee. Science, 16-5, 664-72.
BANDURA, A., ROSS, D. & ROSS, S.A (1961) Teaching Sign Language to a chimpanzee. Science, 16-5, 664-72
CHAPTER 5 COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY
THE COLONY OF MONKEYS
RAWLINS, R. (1979). Forty years of rhesus research. New Scientist, 82, 108-10.
A FISHY TALE
TINBERGEN, N. (1952). The curious behaviour of the stickleback. Scientific American, 187, 22-26.
RAT CITY: THE BEHAVIOURAL SINK
CALHOUN, J.13. (1962). Population density and social pathology. Scientific American, 206, 139-48.
JUST MONKEYING AROUND
ALEXANDER, G.M & HINES, M (2002). Sex Differences in response to children's toys in nonhuman primates. Evolution and Human Behaviour, 23, 467-479
CHAPTER 6 BIO-PSYCHOLOGY
A BRAIN OF TWO HALVES
SPERRY, R. W. (1968). Hemisphere deconnection and unity in conscious awareness. American Psychologist, 23, 723-33.
HOW DO YOU FEEL?
SCHACHTER, S. & SINGER, J. E. (1962). Cognitive, social and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychological Review, 69, 379-99.
TO SLEEP, PERCHANCE TO DREAM
DEMENT, W & KLEITMAN, N. (1957). The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity: An objective method for the study of dreaming. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53, 339-46.
RAINE, A., BUCHSBAUM, M., & LaCASSE, L. (1997). Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by positron emission tomography. Biological Psychiatry, 42(6), 495-508.
WHERE DOES IT HURT?
MELZACK, R. (1992) Phantom limbs. Scientific American, Apil 90-96
PART THREE DIVERSITY
CHAPTER 7 IDENTITY
BLACK DOLLS AND WHITE DOLLS
HRABA., J & GRANT, G. (1970) Black is Beautiful. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16, 398-402
NOBLES, W.W (1976) Extended Self. Rethinking the so-called Negro self-concept. Journal of Black Psychology, 2 15-24
THE BOY WHO WAS RAISED AS A GIRL: PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAGEDY
DIAMOND, M. & SIGMUNDSON (1997) Sex Reassignment at Birth. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine. 151. 298-304
MIRROR MIRROR ON THE WALL
KOFF, E. (1983) Through the looking glass of menarche. In S. Golub (ed), Menarche, pp 77-86. Lexington, Mass:D. Heath.
GIRLS JUST WANT TO HAVE FUN
KITTO, J. (1989) Gender reference terms. British Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 185-87
CHAPTER 8 ABNORMALITY
YOU DON'T HAVE TO BE MAD TO WORK HERE. YOU DON'T EVEN HAVE TO BE MAD TO BE IN HERE...
ROSENHAN, D. L. (1973). On being sane in insane places. Science, 179, 250-58.
GRIFFITH, J.D et al (1973) Dextroamphetamine: Evaluation of psychimetic properties in man. Archive of General Psychiatry, 26, 97-100
THE THREE FACES OF EVE
THIGPEN, C. H. & CLECKLEY, H. (1954). A case of multiple personality Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 49, 135-51.
FEAR TODAY, GONE TOMORROW
LANG, P. J. & LAZOVIK, A. D. (1963). Experimental desensitisation of a phobia. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 519-25.
CHAPTER 9 INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
THE BIG FIVE
McCRAE, R.R & COSTA, P.T (1987) Validation of the five factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 52. 81-90
MEASURING MASCULINITY AND FEMININITY
BEM, S.L (1974) The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 155-62
GOULD, S.J (1982) A nation of morons. New Scientist (6 May 1982) 349-52
A BRAVE NEW WORLD
PLOMIN, R., & DANIELS, D. (1987) Why are children in the same family so different from one another? Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 10 1-16
SECTION FOUR DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
CHAPTER 10 ATTACHMENT
CAN YOU HEAR ME MOTHER?
HARLOW, H. F. (1959). Love in infant monkeys. Scientific American, 200, 68-74.
HODGES, J. & TIZARD, B. (1989b).
Social and family relationships of ex-institutional adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 77-97.
KOLUCHOVÁ J. (1972). Severe deprivation in twins: A case study Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 13, 107-14.
THE BEHAVIOUR OF NEWBORN CHILDREN IN TWO DIFFERENT CULTURES
BRAZELTON, T. B., KOSLOWSKI, B., & TRONICK, E. (1976). Neonatal behavior among urban Zambians and Americans. Journal of Child Psychiatry, 15, 97-107.
CHAPTER 11 THE CLASSIC APPROACHES
I WANT A GIRL, JUST LIKE THE GIRL THAT MARRIED DEAR OLD DAD
FREUD, S. (1909) Analysis of a phobia of five year old boy.. The Pelican Freud Library (1977), Vol 8, Case Histories 1, pp 169-306
PIAGET'S COGNITIVE APPROACH
SAMUEL, J. & BRYANT, P. (1984) Asking only one question in the conservation experiment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 25 315-18
THE TALE OF LITTLE ALBERT
WATSON, J.B & RAYNER, R (1920) Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3 1-14.
VYGOTSKY'S SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVIST APRROACH
WOOD, WOOD & MIDDLETON (1978) An experimental evaluation of four face-to-face teaching strategies. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 1, 131-147
CHAPTER 12 COMMUNICATION
THE DANCE OF THE NEONATES
CONDON, W. S. & SANDER, L. W. (1974). Neonate movement is synchronized with adult speech: Interactional participation and language acquisition. Science, 183, 99-101.
LISTEN WITH MOTHER
FERNALD, A. (1985). Four-month-old infants prefer to listen to motherese. Infant Behavior and Development, 8, 181-95.
LABOV, W. (1969). The logic of nonstandard English.
In P. P. Giglioli (ed.) Language and Social Context, pp. 179-215. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin. Originally in Georgetown Monographs on Language and Linguistics, 2, 1-31.
ALL THE KING'S HORSES AND ALL THE KING'S MEN..,
BRYANT, P.E., BRADLEY, L., MacLEAN, M., & CROSSLAND, J. (1989)
Nursery rhymes, phonological skills and reading. Journal of Child Language, 16 407-428
SECTION FIVE COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
CHAPTER 13 MEMORY
BARTLETT, F. C. (1932). Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology, pp. 177-85. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
LOFTUS, E. F. & PALMER, J. C. (1974). Reconstruction of auto-mobile destruction; An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 585-89.
MODELS OF MEMORY
CRAIK, F. I. M. & LOCKHART, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671-84.
FALSE OR RECOVERED MEMORIES
LOFTU, E. & PICKERELL, J. (1995)
The formation of false memories. Psychiatric Annals, 25, 720-725
CHAPTER 14 PERCEPTION
WALKING OFF A CLIFF
GIBSON, E. J. & WALK, R. D. (1960). The 'visual cliff'. Scientific American, 202, 64-71.
WHY DID THE ANTELOPE CROSS THE ROAD?
DEREGOWSKI, J. B. (1972). Pictorial perception and culture. Scientific American, 227, 82-88.
WALK LIKE A MAN ...
KOZLOWSKI, L.T. & CUTTING, J.E. (1977) Recognizing the Sex of a Walker from a Dynamic Point-Light Display. Perception and Psychophysics, 21(6), 575-580
ARE YOU HAVING A LAUGH?
CARROLL, P.J, YOUNG, J.R & GUERTIN, M.S. (1992) Visual Analysis of Cartoons. Eye Movements and Visual Cognition: Scene Perception and Reading, pp 444-461. New York: Springer-Verlag.
CHAPTER 15 MIND AND THOUGHT
AUTISM AND THEORIES OF MIND
BARON-COHEN, S., LESLIE, A.M. & FRITH, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a 'theory of mind'? Cognition, 21, 37-46.
I'M SORRY DAVE, I CAN'T DO THAT
SEARLE, J. R. (1980). Minds, brains and programs. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3, 417-57.
IS IT A BIRD, IS IT A PLANE ...?
COLLINS, A.M. & QUILLIAN, M.R. (1969) Retrieval Time from Semantic Memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 8, 240-47
WHAT COLOUR IS WEDNESDAY?
RAMANCHANDRAN, V.S & HUBBARD, E.M (2001) Psychophysical investigations into the neural basis of synaesthesia. Proceedings of the Royal Society London, 268, 979-983
CHAPTER 16 ATTENTION
NOW YOU SEE IT, NOW YOU DON'T
SPERLING, G. (1960) Psychological Monographs, 74 (11, whole No 498)
LISTENING WITH ONE EAR
GRAY, J.A & WEDDERBURN, A.A.I (1960) Grouping Strategies with simulataneous stimuli. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 180-194
SIMONS, D.J & CHABRIS, C.F (1999)
Gorillas in our midst. Perception, 28, 1059-1074
SECTION SIX PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS
CHAPTER 17 ANALYSING DATA
AIDS AND UNCERTAINTY
WEITZ, R. (1989) Uncertainty and the lives of persons with AIDS, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 30, 270-81
POTTER, J. & EDWARDS, D. (1990) Nigel Lawson's tent: Discourse analysis, attribution theory and the social psychology of fact. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 405-24
SHRINK WRAPPED: THE CHOICE OF THERAPIST
SMITH, M.L &GLASS, G.V (1977) Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies. American Psychologist, 32, 752-60
LIFE IS STRESS
HOLMES, T.H. & RAHE, R.H (1967) The social re-adjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213-18
CHAPTER 18 ISSUES IN RESEARCH
ORNE, M. T. (1962). On the social psychology of the psychological experiment: With particular reference to demand characteristics and their implications. American Psychologist, 17, 776-83.
WHO ARE PSYCHOLOGY'S SUBJECTS?
SEARS D. O. (1986). College sophomores in the laboratory: Influences of a narrow data base on psychology's view of human nature. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 513-30.
DULL RATS AND BRIGHT RATS
ROSENTHAL, R. & FODE, K. L. (1963). The effect of experimenter bias on the performance of the albino rat. Behavioral Science, 8, 183-89.
HOW GULLIBLE ARE YOU?
FORER, B.R. (1949) The fallacy of personal validation: A classroom demonstration of gullibility. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 44 118-21
MILLER, G.A (1969) Psychology as a means of promoting human welfare. American Psychologist, 24 1063-1075
CHAPTER 19 HOW DOES PSYCHOLOGICAL RSEARCH GET DONE?
DATA AND DATA ANALYSIS
RESEARCH METHOS AND DESIGNS
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
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